Society For Risk Analysis Annual Meeting 2017

Session Schedule & Abstracts

* Disclaimer: All presentations represent the views of the authors, and not the organizations that support their research. Please apply the standard disclaimer that any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations in abstracts, posters, and presentations at the meeting are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of any other organization or agency. Meeting attendees and authors should be aware that this disclaimer is intended to apply to all abstracts contained in this document. Authors who wish to emphasize this disclaimer should do so in their presentation or poster. In an effort to make the abstracts as concise as possible and easy for meeting participants to read, the abstracts have been formatted such that they exclude references to papers, affiliations, and/or funding sources. Authors who wish to provide attendees with this information should do so in their presentation or poster.

Common abbreviations

Hazard-Specific Risk Assessment

Room: Salon D   1:30 pm–3:00 pm

Chair(s): Charles Redinger

Sponsored by Occupational Health and Safety Specialty Group

W3-D.1  1:30 pm  Cancer Risk Associated with Exposure to Bitumen and Bitumen Fumes: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Mundt KA, Dell L, Crawford L, Sax S*, Boffetta P; Ramboll Environ

Abstract: Studies of bitumen (or asphalt) workers have reported increased risks of lung cancer and inconsistent increases in risk of other cancers. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies of bitumen exposure and cancers of the lung, upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), esophagus, stomach, bladder, kidney, and skin. We evaluated the quality of the individual studies and used the GRADE criteria (risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision, and publication bias) to rate evidence for each cancer. Lung cancer risks were increased for all bitumen-exposed workers (meta-RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.20-1.47, 43 results) and roofers (meta-RR 1.79, 95% CI 1.46-2.19, 19 results) and pavers (meta-RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04-1.21, 21 results). Certainty in these estimates was rated low: risk of bias was judged serious (potential uncontrolled confounding), indirectness was judged important (poor exposure characterization), and there was substantial heterogeneity (I2=84.1%). After excluding lower quality studies, lung cancer risks were not increased (meta-RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.74-1.20, 8 studies), and heterogeneity was not observed. For other cancers, the meta-RR was increased for UADT tract cancers overall (meta-RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.22-1.81, 19 studies) and by job: roofers meta-RR 1.32 (95% CI 1.17-1.49, 5 studies) and pavers meta-RR 1.21 (95% CI 1.00-1.47, 11 studies). After excluding lower quality studies, risks of UADT cancers remained increased (meta-RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.03-1.67, 9 studies). Increased stomach cancer risks were also observed after excluding lower quality studies (meta-RR=1.29, 95% CI 1.03-1 .62, 7 studies). Risks for other cancers were unremarkable; however, the evidence was based on studies of limited quality. Our certainty for a conclusion that bitumen exposure causes UADT and stomach cancers was rated low after applying the GRADE criteria. Indirectness was rated serious because of lack of bitumen exposure measurements, and information on tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and occupational co-exposures.

W3-D.2  1:50 pm  Management of pesticides and their containers in a irrigation district in Yucatan, Mexico: risk factors for human health. Flores-Serrano RM*, Pérez-Casimiro G, Álvarez-Florentino E, Ramírez-González A, Ruiz-Piña HA, Rendón-Von Osten J, Aké-López R, Flores-Guido JS; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, and Universidad Autónoma de Campeche

Abstract: The presence of pesticides in the state of Yucatan has been poorly studied due largely to the fact that its agricultural production is low because of its shallow and stony soils. For this reason, the present study was proposed with the following objectives: 1) to determine the types of pesticides used by the farmers in the municipality of Maní, Yucatán, b) to assess the pesticide use practices and the management of the empty containers, and c) to identify the risk factors for human health associated with these practices. A common practice among farmers is the disposal of the containers directly in the soil of their crop plots, therefore the methodology consisted in selecting 5 plots, in which the containers were counted and classified by type of pesticide. Surveys were conducted on pesticide application practices and the management of empty pesticide containers. The surveys were applied to the owners of 7 of the plots (14% of the plots constituting the irrigation district). The results indicated that the pesticides used were: glyphosate (51.86%), paraquat (35.68%), 2-4, D dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (5.47%), chlorpyrifos (2.07%), methamidophos (1.24%), methamyl (1.24%), captan (0.4%) carbofuran (0.4%), and metalaxyl (0.4%). Surveys on pesticide management practices indicated none or minimal protection when applying pesticides, as well as in the management of work clothes impregnated with pesticides. In the same way, the surveys indicated that the main practice in the handling of the containers is the direct disposal in the soil (within their work plot) and the open burning. These practices are a major risk factor for farmers' health, as pesticides enter their bodies through ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact during the application of pesticides. When the containers ar burned, inhalation is the main route of contact, and when the containers are disposed in the soil, there is risk for the groundwater pathway (residues of pesticides washed from the containers to the soil and infiltrating into the aquifer).

W3-D.3  2:10 pm  Evaluation of risk of occupational injuries and hearing loss among informal electronic waste recyclers. Langeland AL*, Neitzel RL, Nambunmee K, Sayler SK; University of Michigan and Mae Fah Luang University

Abstract: Electronic waste, “e-waste”, refers generally to any electronic or electrical equipment that has reached the end of its usable life. The global burden of e-waste has increased exponentially as electronic products have simultaneously undergone a proliferation in type, shortening of lifespan, and increased access to electronics across the globe. E-waste generally flows from high-income countries to middle- and low-income countries, where e-waste recycling represents a transformative source of income. E-waste recycling workers recover valuable materials from electronics in unofficial settings using crude methods. In the process, workers expose themselves and the environment to hazardous chemicals. Additionally, workers are at risk of noise-induced hearing loss and physical injury as there is poor access to personal protective equipment and proper tools. A growing body of literature has explored the various types of chemical exposures in e-waste recycling. However, no task-based analysis has been conducted to evaluate the specific aspects of e-waste recycling that present the greatest physical hazards to workers, nor has sufficient research been conducted that evaluates occupational injury risks of these workers. The purpose of this study was to determine which tasks, products, and methods present informal e-waste workers with the greatest injury risk. To address this gap in the literature, our study examined individual and workplace characteristics among workers in Thailand and Chile. Forty informal workers were recruited from each country to participate in an occupational injury risk assessment. To determine the greatest risk factors in predicting injury, we designed a semi-quantitative, task-based, observational tool to assess the frequency of injuries experienced by informal e-waste workers. The tool was then implemented in our study population in Thailand and Chile. The information obtained in this study will be critical in identifying opportunities for interventions intended to reduce injury and health hazard risks in this vulnerable population.

W3-D.4  2:30 pm  Risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple organophosphorus pesticides. Chang BS, Wu KY, Chen YJ, Chuang YC, Lin JW, Ho WC, Chiang SY*; China Medical University
Exposure Assessment

Abstract: Cumulative risk assessment for pesticides has been an important international trend, nevertheless, there is very few relevant research in Taiwan. Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are commonly used pesticides. This study conducted risk assessment of combined exposure to 12 OPs on the basis of the mode of action to assess potential impact on human health. The approach of relative potency factor (RPF) in cumulative risk assessment was used for OPs with a common mechanism of inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase. According to the residual data of agricultural products in 2010 to 2015 released by Council of Agriculture in Taiwan, the statistical distribution of residues of 12 commonly used OPs (Acephate, Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Dimethoate, Fenthion, Marathion, Methamidophos, Phorate, Terbufos, and Fenitrothion) was established using Monte Carlo simulation method to simulate the total exposure risk. We estimated the distribution of OP residues in vegetables and fruits and applied RPFs to transform each pesticide to the compound-specific residue concentration of index compound methamidophos. In this approach, each pesticide was calculated out to lifetime average daily dose (LADD) based on methamidophos, index compound and then to surplus them into total LADD. The results show that in general food intake rate, the mean of margin of exposure (MOE) and 95% lower bound of MOE are greater than 100. In contrast, MOEs (mean, 95% lower bond) in consumer only food intake rate are smaller than 100. Actually, the real risk is located in this interval and across 100. Therefore, the result of combined exposure to multiple OPs suggests the regulation of OPs should be scrutinized and revised carefully in the future.

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