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Society For Risk Analysis Annual Meeting 2009

Risk Analysis: The Evolution of a Science

Session Schedule & Abstracts

* Disclaimer: All presentations represent the views of the authors, and not the organizations that support their research. Please apply the standard disclaimer that any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations in abstracts, posters, and presentations at the meeting are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of any other organization or agency. Meeting attendees and authors should be aware that this disclaimer is intended to apply to all abstracts contained in this document. Authors who wish to emphasize this disclaimer should do so in their presentation or poster. In an effort to make the abstracts as concise as possible and easy for meeting participants to read, the abstracts have been formatted such that they exclude references to papers, affiliations, and/or funding sources. Authors who wish to provide attendees with this information should do so in their presentation or poster.

Common abbreviations

From Creation to Destruction: Life Cycle Analysis of Nanotechnology

Room: Pride of Baltimore   3:30-5:00 PM

Chair(s): Jo Anne Shatkin

M4-I.1  15:30  Case studies of nano-titanium dioxide by US EPA. Wang A*, Davis JM; US EPA

Abstract: While hundreds of products containing engineered nanomaterials (NM) are in use, quantitative risk assessment of NM is not yet feasible due to critical data gaps. To synthesize available data and identify gaps in information needed for risk assessment, US EPA developed two case studies of nano-titanium dioxide (nTiO2) used in water treatment and topical sunscreen. The case studies use a comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach, combining a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm, and include consideration of life cycle, fate and transport, exposure-dose, and health and ecological effects. The case studies note that various forms of nTiO2 can have distinctively different physicochemical properties. Photocatalytic nTiO2 is used in water treatment as an oxidation catalyst; photostable nTO2 is used in sunscreen to absorb or scatter UV. Potential releases of nTiO2 into various environmental media are relevant to all stages of the product life cycle. Physicochemical properties of nTiO2 and the media/environment in which nTiO2 is present affect nTiO2 fate and transport, exposure, dose, and environmental and health effects. For example, pH of the environment affects the size of nTiO2 aggregates and thus potentially their transport, delivered dose, and effect. Possible human exposure routes for nTiO2 comprise inhalation, dermal absorption, and ingestion. Toxic effects at high doses include brain neurotransmitter alterations and pulmonary tumors in lab animals. Ecological effects include gill injuries in fish after a 2-wk exposure to concentrations as low as 0.1 mg/L photocatalytic nTiO2. Interactive effects, e.g., increased uptake of other toxic chemicals, also cannot be ruled out. Although the case studies are not completed assessments, they have served as a basis for EPA to identify and prioritize research needed to support CEA of selected NM such as nTiO2. This abstract does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of US EPA.

M4-I.2  15:50  Investigating the Life Cycle Risks of a Nanomaterial in Paint using Nano LCRA. Larsen W, Shatkin JA*; CLF Ventures

Abstract: Much of the current research on engineered nanoscale materials (ENM) focuses on the toxicity or other properties of free, unbound particles. However, at various stages throughout the product life cycle, ENM are likely to be incorporated into a matrix, e.g. a sunscreen or a coating material, that will affect the toxicity, biological and environmental behavior. This presentation will describe a case study application of NANO LCRA, a screening framework for evaluating potential exposure and risk across the product life cycle, for an ENM under development intended for application in a coating material. The initial evaluation identified potential exposure pathways during the application, use, and disposal life cycle phases. Novel methods were developed to simulate exposure at these stages through handling and direct contact. Initial testing found nanoparticles were released to the ambient environment. The presentation will describe the methods and research findings.

M4-I.3  16:10  Managing Life Cycle Risks of Nanomaterials in the US Army. Lloyd SL, Scanlon KA*; Concurrent Technologies Corporation

Abstract: Nanotechnology is an emergent area. It is the understanding and control of matter that has at least one dimension less than 100 nanometers. Matter in these dimensions displays novel properties differing from single atoms, molecules, and bulk materials. The US Department of Defense (DoD) has initiated nanotechnology research and development to discover unique phenomena of nanomaterials to enhance war fighter and battle systems capabilities. While nanomaterials offer many benefits in military as well as human health, environmental, commercial, and industrial applications, preliminary studies suggest the novel properties of some engineering nanomaterials may pose risks to force health protection and environmental and occupational health. These risks may ultimately affect the DoD's national security mission. Because nanomaterials may behave very differently from their conventionally-sized counterparts, little is known about their toxicological and environmental effects. The Army Environmental Policy Institute (AEPI) assists the Deputy Assistant Secretary for the Army for Environment, Safety and Occupational Health (ESOH) in developing proactive policies and strategies to address installation and environmental issues that may have impacts on the US Army. In this regard, AEPI has undertaken the task of preparing an accurate and comprehensive narrative of the current state of knowledge of the ESOH implications of nanotechnology, current and anticipated nanotechnology ESOH regulatory landscape, the risks and liabilities associated with nanomaterials across Army weapon systems and facility life cycles, best practices for controlling and managing nanomaterials, and gaps in scientific knowledge, policy and workplace practices. To manage the life cycle risks for nanomaterials, AEPI is developing recommendations for the Army. In this presentation, we will highlight the need for a commitment to identifying and managing potential risks throughout the product's life cycle using an integrated approach that includes both standards and collaborative efforts.

M4-I.4  16:30  EPA nanomaterial case studies and ranking of research priorities. Davis JM*; US EPA

Abstract: In an effort to refine a research strategy to support assessments of the environmental and health implications of nanomaterials, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed case studies focusing on two selected applications of nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2): water treatment and topical sunscreen. These case studies were structured around an approach known as comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA), which combines a product life cycle framework with the risk assessment paradigm (Davis, J.M., J. Nanosci. Nanotech. 7:402-9, 2007). Given the nascent state of science regarding the physicochemical, environmental, and toxicological characteristics of most nanomaterials, it is not feasible to conduct an actual CEA of nano-TiO2 at present. Instead, the objective of using case studies and the CEA framework was to systematically identify and prioritize research that would be needed to support such an assessment in the future. A key feature of the CEA approach is that it relies on collective input from diverse technical and stakeholder perspectives to provide a holistic view of the issues under consideration. Rather than having merely a general discussion session, a formal method known as Nominal Group Technique was used to provide structure to the discussion and an equal opportunity for all participants to present their views during a two-day workshop. The outcome of this process was a ranking of research priorities needed to address key unknowns about (1) specific applications of nano-TiO2, (2) nano-TiO2 generally, and (3) nanomaterials more broadly. Additional case studies focusing on other types of nanomaterials and applications are planned as part of an ongoing process to develop a general research strategy for the comprehensive environmental assessment of nanomaterials. Disclaimer: This abstract does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of U.S. EPA

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