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Participation in marine conservation science (e.g. citizen and indigenous science)

Room: Dochart A     2014-08-16; 15:00 - 17:00

NB: Unless specified otherwise, presentations are 15 minutes in length, and speed presentations are 5 mins in length.

CS5.1  15:00  A quick stop before heading to pupping grounds? Whale sharks population structure, habitat use and connectivity patterns at Darwin Island, Galapagos Is. Acuña-Marrero, D , Charles Darwin Reserach Station; Hearn, A Turtle Island Research Network; Green, J Charles Darwin Reserach Station; Salinas de León, P *Charles Darwin Reserach Station;

Abstract: Understanding the life history of high mobility species, including reproductive ecology and migratory routes, is key to promote international conservation measures. Here, we present results from the first whale shark population study around Darwin Island, Galapagos Marine Reserve, following a diversified approach to characterize their presence, population structure, habitat use and their regional connectivity patterns. Whale sharks occurrence is directly related to the cold season (July-December). Between 2011-2013, we photo-identified 82 whale sharks, the great majority (91.5%) adult female individuals showing clear signs of pregnancy. Population dynamics analysis for pregnant sharks revealed the presence of 4.92±0.48 sharks in the study area per day with an individual residency time of 2.10±0.24 days, resulting in an estimation of 886 pregnant whale sharks during the cold season. Movement patterns of over 40 pregnant individuals tracked with acoustic and satellite tags revealed an intense use of Darwin’s Arch, followed by a migratory pattern towards the West. All our results point to Darwin Island as an important stopover in a migration with reproductive purposes rather than an aggregation site, and large-scale movements suggest the presence of pupping grounds West of the Galápagos, in international unprotected waters.

CS5.2  15:15  Coastal Communities, Conservation and Livelihoods. Charles, Anthony *, Saint Mary\\\'s University;

Abstract: The success of marine conservation initiatives depends closely on their interaction with coastal communities and local livelihoods. This presentation describes the work of the Community Conservation Research Network (CCRN: www.CommunityConservation.Net) in addressing this interaction. The CCRN is seeking ‘best practices’ globally in community-based solutions to marine and coastal environmental problems, and in higher-level governmental policy support. Applying a social-ecological systems lens, CCRN research explores how local-level conservation links with sustainable livelihoods, through a partnership of aboriginal, community, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, together with academics. Our research, in eleven sites globally, addresses four key themes: (1) the meaning of conservation, (2) the motivation for conservation, (3) environmental governance, and (4) the measuring and monitoring of outcomes, from environmental, economic and social perspectives. The results are being directly applied by CCRN partners, and will ultimately lead to policy impacts, notably in the form of more acceptable policy to support locally-appropriate conservation, to deal with conflicts over values, and to provide the incentives for both conservation and job security. This presentation links concepts and theoretical analyses with practical applications to date by CCRN partners around the world.

CS5.3  15:30  Economic Valuation of the impact on the fisheries after the appearance of lionfish in the Colombia Caribbean coral reefs. Galvis, NH *, Fundación ICRI Colombia en Pro de los Arrecifes Coralinos; Galvis, RH Fundación ICRI Colombia en Pro de los Arrecifes Coralinos; Pardo, JC PESCAPUR; Guerrero,H PESCAPUR;

Abstract: The first report of lionfish in the border between Panama and Colombia, was in October 2010, by divers of RENOBOS / RENOVOS (Colombian Networks of volunteer reporters of the coral reefs) from the Foundation ICRI Colombia in Pro of Coral Reefs. The Association of Fishermen of Capurgana PESCAPUR, encharged their accountant to work with us in the report of fisheries statistics from 2009 till present in order to identify any changes in productivity after the lionfish appearance. Losses are evident in the analysis. However, a new local market is developing the lionfish for consumption is gaining costumers and the price is getting up after engaging audiences and an official communication of INVIMA (Equivalent to FDA) that allowed the dismitification the the venom of lionfish was a risk for human health in 2012. This event is also shown in the graphics with supporting data.

CS5.4  15:35  Empowering local marine resource users to prepare Marine Protected Area management plans: the next step towards improving co-management effectiveness. Klaus, R. *, Shoals Rodrigues & BiK-F Senckenberg Research Institute; Hardman, E.R. Shoals Rodrigues; Raffin, J.S.J Shoals Rodrigues; Meunier, M.S. Shoals Rodrigues; Perrine, S. Shoals Rodrigues; Blais, F.E.I Shoals Rodrigues; Raffaut, R. Shoals Rodrigues;

Abstract: Intensive fishing pressure in the Rodrigues lagoon has degraded lagoon habitats and resulted in drastic declines in fisheries landings and fisher livelihoods. Recognizing the need to address these issues, standard participatory processes were used to help the local fishing community identify four Marine Reserves, which were designated in 2007. Then this project took an alternative approach, and instead of using external experts, it also aimed to empower local stakeholders to actually write the Marine Reserves Management Plan themselves. A series of training workshops were held to build local capacity in management planning and to capture local knowledge using participatory mapping techniques. Through the workshops, participants were tasked with devising the co-management governance framework and the vision, goals, strategies and actions. A core group of stakeholders (fishers, NGO and tourism representatives and fisheries enforcement officers) then used the workshop outputs, results of previous scientific studies and their local knowledge to write the plan. Extensive consultations were held with local communities to ensure their interests were represented. The approach used to complete the plan brought marine resource users into the heart of the decision-making process and developed a strong sense of pride and ownership amongst the local community, and built support for co-management. Priority actions from the Marine Reserves Management Plan are now being implemented.

CS5.5  15:40  How can oil and gas companies and marine biota observers collaborate to improve marine science in Brazil? . Leite, Luciana *, Cambridge University;

Abstract: In 2007, Brazil made its largest ever hydrocarbonate discovery – a nearly 150.000 sq km area of pre-salt reservoirs located off the Brazilian coast. There are currently 51 drilling rigs, 144 producing platforms and 4 seismic vessels in operation in the region and these number are expected to grow fast. As NGOs and universities across the country struggle to finance offshore research, there are hundreds of biologists placed on platforms and vessels, monitoring fauna and collecting data in oil and gas operations. The presence of marine biota observers (MBOs) is required by the Brazilian Environmental Agency (IBAMA) in order for companies to operate in the region. However there is no certified training program for MBOs in Brazil and no standardized methods exist for collecting or reporting data. Marine Biota Observers also face conflicts on data ownership. Legally, any data collected belong to IBAMA and must be available to the public. Nevertheless MBOs are pressured to sign non-disclosure contracts with companies which limit their ability to share information collected while offshore. Despite the scarcity of data on the Brazilian coast and international requests for more research on the impact of seismic surveys and oil rigs in the marine biota, companies discourage researchers working offshore from publishing their findings. The objective of this paper is to reveal the status quo of marine science in oil and gas operations in Brazil and to urge for collaborative efforts and protocols to improve marine science off the coast.

CS5.6  15:45  Heavily Fe and Zn contaminated seaweed in the Kanayama Bay in Kii peninsula central Japan. Ii, Hiroyuki *, Professor, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakyama University;

Abstract: Fe and Zn concentration of seaweed was found to reach 3 % dry weight in the Kanayama Bay. The old Pb mine, Knayama mine operated beside the bay. Ore mineral was 50 % pyrite FeS2, 40 % sphalerite ZnS, 5 % galena PbS and 5 % chalcopyrite CuFeS2. Then mine waste contained high concentration of Fe and Zn. Although the mine adit was filled with concrete, seepage water in the coast derived from the mine tunnel water flowed into the bay. The pH value of seepage water was 3 and Fe, Zn, Pb and Cu concentration reached 90, 90, 0.1 and 0.4 ppm. Total load of Fe and Zn per year reached 5000 kg. Fe ion was oxidized and precipitated in the bay and rocks and seaweeds became brown color. Then, no animals eat photoplankton and adhering algae was found however 11 kinds of seaweed were found. The 11 species and another more kind of seaweed were found out of the bay. Therefore, the 11 species were talent to high Fe and Zn condition. 11 species contained more 0.1 % Fe and Zn dry weight. Pb and Cu concentration of seaweed were 100 to 1600 and 10 to 500 ppm.

CS5.8  15:50  Assessing dolphin behavior with acoustics: The bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus whistle repertoire depends on what dolphins do. Brenda P. González-Leal *, Universidad del Mar; Carmen Bazúa-Durán Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM);

Abstract: Whistles are a dolphin phonation emitted during most activities. This paper compares whistle repertoires of wild bottlenose dolphins recorded in Laguna de Términos in the southern Guld of Mexico, associated with four activities: socializing, feeding, traveling, and resting. With whistle contours, the whistle repertoire was obtained to further categorize whistle types into four general classes to obtain a complexity index. Results show that these parameters are useful to compare whistle repertoires. The whistle repertoire was large (21 whistle types) with a high complexity (CI=0.62) while socializing and was small (6) with a high complexity (CI=0.63) while resting. Dolphins were feeding when the repertoire was large (26) with a medium complexity (CI=0.47) and were traveling when it was small (18) with a low complexity (CI=0.36). It is necessary to implement new measures like these ones to better understand how dolphins are using whistles, since acoustic communication is the most important sense in dolphin species and we should be able to use their whistles to assess the activites they perform. This is specially important in areas where dolphins are exposed to humans, and where underwater visibility is limited, like this Marine Protected Area in Mexico, because other behavioral studies but acoustics are nearly impossible in these habitats [supported by CONACyT and PAPIIT-UNAM].

CS5.9  15:55  Fishing derbies: An unconventional tool for public engagement in invasive species control. Green, SJ *, Oregon State University; Akins, JL Reef Environmental Education Foundation ;

Abstract: With complete eradication of established marine invasions often beyond the resources available to managers, how can we harness sufficient human and economic capital to tackle ocean invasions at ecologically relevant scales? The rapid invasion of predatory Indo-Pacific lionfish throughout the Western Atlantic, Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico is a prime example of this problem. Recently single day 'fishing derbies' have emerged as a tool for increasing local participation in lionfish removal. However, the degree to which these events suppress invasive populations remains unknown. We quantified the magnitude and scale of control achieved by derbies in Green Turtle Cay, Bahamas and Key Largo, Florida., and found that derby participants affected a greater than 60% reduction in lionfish densities within the 100-150km2 derby areas, compared with pre-derby levels. population suppression was isolated to the area where the derby occurred. Crucially, we found that derby removals were sufficient to reduce lionfish populations below densities at which they are predicted to deplete the native fish prey. Our works shows that using unconventional methods like derbies in high priority management areas may be a cost-effective way to suppress invasive populations.

CS5.10  16:00  Determining Genotypes from Blowhole Exhalation Samples of Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Borowska, EI *, Department of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, ul.Ciszewskiego 8, 02-786 Warsaw, Poland; Nowak, Z Department of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, ul.Ciszewskiego 8, 02-786 Warsaw, Poland; Foote, AD Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Øster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 København K, Denmark; van Elk, C Dolfinarium, 3840 Harderwijk, Netherlands; Wahlberg, M University of Southern Denmark, Hindsholmsvej 11, 5300 Kerteminde, Denmark, and Fjord &Bælt, MargrethesPlads 1, 5300 Kerteminde, Denmark;

Abstract: The use of non-invasive tools for research on marine mammals often creates difficulties. One huge challenge is to obtain genetic samples from free-ranging as well as captive animals without exposing them to stress. Here, blood samples and blowhole exhalation samples were collected from 11 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) held in captivity. The mitochondrial DNA sequences and microsatellite allele scores extracted from the blowhole exhalations were comparable to the ones from the blood samples. Thus this non-invasive method of blow sampling is appropriate for obtaining high quality DNA samples from smaller cetaceans for studies on population genetics. These results open up for the possibility to study population genetics of this species from exhalation air samples and also from other cetaceans. These findings may greatly facilitate non-intrusive genetic sampling in this species in the future.

CS5.11  16:10  Fishers\' Local Ecological Knowledge and perceptions in Samaná, Dominican Republic. Mclean, Elizabeth L. *, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA; Forrester, Graham E. University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA;

Abstract: A better understanding of how people relate to their environment can help further environmental conservation and human well being. Recently, the study of Local Ecological knowledge (LEK) has emerged as a powerful tool to complement western scientific knowledge. LEK may be useful to understanding the challenges in small scale fishing communities and to promote sustainable use of natural resources. The challenge is to increase our ability to understand LEK through a systematic process. For this study 152 fishers from 11 communities on the NE coast of the Dominican Republic were interviewed to understand their LEK and the connections that exist between their shared knowledge and how they relate to their environment. A multi-disciplinary approach based on the Grounded Theory and a cultural consensus model was used in the analysis. Perhaps because fishers targeted many different species, there was limited evidence that they formed a single group with shared knowledge. For subgroups for which there was cultural consensus on LEK, there was no relationship between this and how they perceived management regulations and changes in their fishery. Most fishers perceived the fishery as declining, and an increase in destructive practices was widely perceived as a major contributory factor. I hypothesize that economic and social pressures lead to ongoing overfishing, despite the fact that fishers are knowledgeable about the decline of their fishery and its ecological consequences.

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