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Effective conservation planning (to include EBM and MPAs, cumulative impacts)

Room: Alsh     2014-08-16; 15:00 - 17:00

NB: Unless specified otherwise, presentations are 15 minutes in length, and speed presentations are 5 mins in length.

CS2.1  15:00  Britain's first marine nature reserve: why has it succeeded and why has it failed? Hiscock, K. *, Marine Biological Association of the UK;

Abstract: The Island of Lundy in south-west England was Britain’s first voluntary (in 1972) and first statutory (in 1986) marine reserve. It hosted the first no-take zone established for biodiversity conservation (in 2003) and was the first Marine Conservation Zone (in 2013). It has a wide range of habitats and an associated rich biota with many nationally rare or scarce species in an attractive landscape around its 15km of coastline. Many of the features present over 40 years ago persist and the no-take zone has led to a great increase in the abundance and size of lobsters. There has been no change in species richness or general character of seabed biota in the no-take zone and some of the attached seabed life has seen a significant decline since the mid-1980s. Such declines within MPAs are not unusual and most often seem to occur because of eutrophication and perhaps the arrival of non-native invasive species. This presentation investigates what has happened at Lundy in the context of experience worldwide and summarizes what MPAs can and cannot do for the conservation of biodiversity. It reviews how the knowledge that we have in conservation science can be better used to advise site managers about what really matters in maintaining sites and how to separate natural from unnatural events. It questions the view that highly protected MPAs will provide resilience against unavoidable change in ecosystems.

CS2.2  15:15  Paving the way for ecosystem recovery: trade-offs between fisheries and other marine ecosystem services. Samhouri, Jameal *, NOAA Northwest Fisheries Science Center; Stier, Adrian NOAA Northwest Fisheries Science Center; Levin, Phil NOAA Northwest Fisheries Science Center;

Abstract: A major challenge for 21st century marine conservation lies in determining how changes in individual management actions, or combinations of different management actions, shape trade-offs between components of social-ecological systems. In Haida Gwaii (B.C., Canada), Pacific herring occupy a central position in the marine food web, marine economy, and Haida culture. In the 1990s, the Haida Gwaii herring stock declined to the extent that all commercial fisheries for it were closed. Today, the subject of whether, when, and how to re-open fisheries that target the roe of herring is highly controversial, especially given that the predators of herring (especially marine mammals) are more abundant now than anytime in the last century. In this study, we explored two questions: (1) Might fisheries compete with marine mammals for herring as a prey resource? (2) Are there management strategies that can provide an allocation of herring to both fisheries and to marine mammals, while sustaining the herring stock for the long-term? Our approach accounts for the dynamic interaction between recovery of marine mammals and harvest of herring in Haida Gwaii, leading to insights about the utility of historical harvest limits and the potential effect of future harvest regulations on profits to fisheries and conservation goals related to the abundance of marine mammals.

CS2.3  15:20  DataMARES: Streamlining communication and collaboration in marine science. Monica Arancibia-Colgain *, Palomar College; Marcia Moreno-Báez Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego; Obregón-Noriega, V. Centro para la Biodiversidad Marina y la Conservación, A.C.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, A. para la Biodiversidad Marina y la Conservación, A.C; Aburto-Oropeza, O. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego;

Abstract: The need for developing a comprehensive platform allowing scientists to communicate with stakeholders and decision-makers is great in marine conservation. As decision-makers deliberate policy in the coming years, an extensive resource that provides access to the latest scientific data is essential. Considering rapidly variable influences (e.g. climate change) on systems as complex as coastal and marine ecosystems requires a tool to yield an apt response. So in the age of globalisation and big data, DataMARES seeks to provide a structured platform to streamline communication. The effective use of technology for interdisciplinary collaboration is essential as the capabilities of technology increase. DataMARES is a free, open-source, interactive platform that promotes accessibility to robust scientific data by stakeholders, decision-makers, scientists and the public. Through the collaborative effort of more than ten research institutions DataMARES has already integrated and visualised about 20 years of underwater monitoring data and fishery data. The addition of data, participants and interdisciplinary efforts through DataMARES will only further opportunities in conservation. DataMARES is the foundation of a new innovative science that will allow open, persistent, robust, and secure integration and access of scientific information, to meet the needs of science and society in the understanding of our coast and oceans.

CS2.4  15:25  Close the high seas to fishing? White, C. *, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo; Costello, C. University of California, Santa Barbara;

Abstract: The world’s oceans are governed as a system of over 150 sovereign exclusive economic zones (EEZs, ~42% of the ocean) and one large high seas commons (~58% of ocean) with essentially open access. Many high-valued fish species such as tuna, billfish, and shark migrate around these large oceanic regions, which as a consequence of competition across EEZs and a global race-to-fish on the high seas, have been over-exploited and now return far less than their economic potential. We address this global challenge by analyzing with a spatial bioeconomic model the effects of completely closing the high seas to fishing. This policy both induces cooperation among countries in the exploitation of migratory stocks and provides a refuge sufficiently large to recover and maintain these stocks at levels close to those that would maximize fisheries returns. We find that completely closing the high seas to fishing would simultaneously give rise to large gains in fisheries profit (>100%), fisheries yields (>30%), and fish stock conservation (>150%). We also find that changing EEZ size may benefit some fisheries; nonetheless, a complete closure of the high seas still returns larger fishery and conservation outcomes than does a high seas open to fishing.

CS2.5  15:30  Patterns of anthropogenic threats to seabirds in the North Pacific. Rockwood, R. Cotton *, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0208; Ballance, Lisa T. Southwest Fisheries Science Center, NMFS, NOAA8901 La Jolla Shores Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037; Benjamin S. Halpern Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA; Reg Watson Institute of Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Taroona, Tasmania, Australia;

Abstract: Given that many species of seabird spend a majority of their time at-sea, the threats they encounter there are likely to have significant importance for survival, health and breeding success. At the same time, at-sea anthropogenic threats are not well-known. When they are studied, these threats are often considered in isolation, though additive or synergistic effects are undoubtedly important. To assess the distribution and patterns of at-sea anthropogenic threats specific to seabirds, we created a spatially explicit map for the North Pacific. The map includes relative levels for 10 threat categories, with data spanning the Pacific from the equator to 66°N latitude. These threats include three categories related to fisheries: bycatch, trophic disturbance through biomass removal, and direct competition; five categories of pollution: organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, large oil spills, maritime transport pollution, and marine debris; and two climate change categories: sea surface temperature anomaly, and wind pattern change. We analyze the map to reveal the areas of highest and lowest threat, as well as regions of highest and lowest number of threats. In addition, we assess threat by Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of nations and compare these across nations and discuss these in relation to the rankings of priority countries for seabirds. Threats in the North Pacific place some ecosystems of vital importance to seabirds at especially high risk.

CS2.6  15:35  Foraging habitat selection and diving depth of Wedge-tailed and Tropical Shearwater as tool for marine conservation in the western indian ocean. Licia Calabrese *, Island Conservation Society, BP 775, Pointe Larue, Mahé, Seychelles; Jacopo G. Cecere ISPRA - Institute for Environmental Protection and Research, Via Cà Fornacetta 9, 40064, Ozzano dell’Emilia, Italy; Gerard Rocamora Conservation Society, BP 775, Pointe Larue, Mahé, Seychelles; Carlo Catoni Ornis italica, Piazza Crati 15, 00199, Roma, Italy; Vincent Bretagnolle 2Centre d’Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, Centre Nationale Recherche Scientifique, 79360, Villiers en Bois, France;

Abstract: Seabird movements during foraging trips and their preference for particular areas and depths have recently been the focus of many studies aimed at gaining a better understanding of the ecological requirements of several species. A better knowledge of these requirements is particularly needed in areas where fish exploitation and climate change can play an important role in population and ecosystem health. GPS devices were used on the Wedge-tailed Shearwater and archival tags on both Wedge-tailed and Tropical Shearwaters breeding on Aride Island, Seychelles. The GPS devices allowed the identification of main foraging areas used during early chick-rearing and to assess at-sea foraging habitat selection. One main foraging area (3,313 km2) was located approximately 100 km east of the colony just outside the granitic bank. The area is characterized by upwelling and higher values of primary production compared to surrounding areas. The archival tags gave additional information on the foraging ecology of the species, in particular on diving depth and feeding frequency. The identification of key marine conservation areas, like those identified in this study, is a priority for designating marine Important Bird Areas and identifying habitat management measures. The results of this study can assist in the development of conservation plans for Wedge-tailed and Tropical Shearwaters and other seabird species in the Western Indian Ocean.

CS2.7  15:40  Perceptions of reef health and support for coral reef management in three Caribbean UK Overseas Territories (UKOTs) . McLoughlin, N C *, Newcastle University ; Mottram, P Newcastle University ; Young, S Newcastle University ; Fitzsimmons, C Newcastle University ;

Abstract: Millions of people in the Caribbean rely on ecosystem services provided by coral reefs. Coral reefs face multiple stressors including climate change, unsustainable fishing practices, nutrification and ocean acidification. Good management takes into account the perceptions of people who use reefs, however, large scale social studies of marine perceptions are uncommon. This study seeks to understand how perceptions of reef health influence support for management measures and how this varies between groups that use reefs to differing degrees. Survey data (N= c.600) were gathered from 9 communities in 3 Caribbean UKOTs (Anguilla, British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos). Selected sites had economies dependent on tourism, fishing or a mix of both. Respondents were asked to agree or disagree with a series of 10 statements about management, which was used to ascribe a ‘support for management score’. Respondents were also asked to rate the health of coral reefs and number of fish on the reefs which was combined into a ‘perceived reef health score’. Initial findings suggest that support for management varies with perception of reef health which also differs between user groups. These findings are offered to help marine managers in the UKOTs understand attitudes towards management.

CS2.8  15:45  ARION: a PAM system for real time bottlenose dolphin monitoring in the Portofino MPA. Alessi, J , Università degli Studi di Genova; Bianchi, CN Università degli Studi di Genova; Bozzini, G *Università degli Studi di Genova; Brunoldi, M Università degli Studi di Genova; Cappanera, V Portofino MPA; Casale, A Università degli Studi di Genova; Corvisiero, P Università degli Studi di Genova; Fanciulli, G , Portofino MPA;

Abstract: The main objective of the LIFE + project named ARION is the implementation of a real time PAM system for the conservation of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Portofino MPA (Italy). ARION gets this aim by the real time tracking of dolphins and boats and by the diffusion of warning messages to all categories involved in order to prevent possible collisions. Two detection units are placed one kilometer off the coast of Portofino headland. Each unit is a particular type of marine buoy equipped with four hydrophones and an acquisition system which can record the typical “social communication whistles” emitted by the dolphins and the sounds emitted by boat engines. Signals are elaborated to get the real time position of dolphins and boats. Upon reception of the warnings the boats present in the area will be invited to follow a protocol of conduct supervised by the Coast Guard. This approach will improve the species protection, the sustainable coexistence of dolphins and anthropic activities and will promote responsible activities in the sea, especially in one of the most touristic Marine Protected Areas of the Mediterranean Sea. We illustrate the technical details of the automatic system for bottlenose dolphins conservation and the results of first months of observation will be reported.

CS2.9  15:50  Long-term Monitoring on Ecological Impact in Marine Environment. Jongkwan Choi , Korea National Park Service; Gyusung Lee Korea National Park Service; Jooyoung Jung Korea National Park Service; Jongmyeong Kim Korea National Park Service; Chang-lae Lee *Korea National Park Service;

Abstract: In 2007, a Hong Kong-based oil tanker Hebei Spirit collided with a crane barge belonging to Samsung Heavy Industry offshore of Taean Peninsula, Korea, spilling 12,547㎘ of crude oil. As most of the affected areas were National Park that was known for its excellent marine ecosystem, immediate response measures and the restoration of the ecosystem were required. Accordingly, a joint research team was organized by the initiative of Korea National Park Service(KNPS). KNPS has implemented long-term monitoring of oil spill in an effort to estimate and monitor changes in ecosystem and the degree of recovery from the very inception of the oil spill incident. Due to characteristics of the marine environment near Taeanhaean National Park such as high tidal range, fast current speed, and high level of turbidity, the 'serious level of oil residue' declined rapidly during 2008 and 2012 as indicated by the following, 69%→9.9% → 4.5%→3.7%→2.3%. As of 2012, in all fields of marine environment and marine organisms, a stable level is being maintained, but it is not certain whether the condition of marine ecosystem returned to the previous state that was held before the oil spill incident. The Oil Pollution Research Center will obtain data on overall marine environment that is not necessarily related to the oil spill. The information will be utilized as basic data for conservation of natural resources in Taeanhaean National Park from potential risk factors that might arise in the future from other sources.

CS2.10  15:55  What has behavioural ecology to do with marine conservation? Benvenuto, C. *, University of Salford;

Abstract: Marine conservation science is, by definition, a multidimensional discipline. It goes beyond conservation biology, including many other fields. In this interdisciplinary framework, the importance of behavioural ecology and animal behaviour has been widely accepted and the term “conservation behaviour” has been introduced to legitimate this new field. Yet, some researchers still debates on the actual contribution of behavioural studies to the conservation of biodiversity. Moreover, the role of these studies is not often explicitly recognized or employed in practical conservation actions. I strongly believe that a better understanding of animal behaviours and mating strategies is fundamental in any program of conservation and management of biodiversity. Reproductive strategies in particular affect abundance of populations and stocks and should be included in fisheries management and conservation efforts. Here a few case studies are presented to show the influential implications of mating systems and strategies in marine populations of fish and crustaceans (with a focus on sequential hermaphrodites, i.e., sex changing species) in the face of over-exploitation and climate change. Effects on effective population size, over-harvesting mainly targeted to a single sex and plastic adjustment of sex ratios are discussed.

CS2.11  16:00  Why should mesophotic reefs (30-150 m) be protected? Genetic connectivity insight into a Hawaiian damselfish found on shallow and mesophotic reefs. Tenggardjaja, KT *, University of California, Santa Cruz; Bowen, BW Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology; Bernardi, G University of California, Santa Cruz;

Abstract: Although coral reefs can extend to depths of over 150 m, the majority of coral reef systems that have been studied occur in tropical waters at depths shallower than 30 m. Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) characterize this largely unexplored 30-150 m depth range. Studies on connectivity have been highlighted as a priority in the emerging realm of mesophotic research. These studies are useful for determining whether mesophotic reefs can replenish populations on shallow reefs and for discovering genetic diversity unique to mesophotic depths. This study represents one of the first attempts to assess vertical and horizontal genetic connectivity in a reef fish found on shallow and mesophotic reefs. We utilized mitochondrial and nuclear markers to investigate genetic connectivity in Chromis verater, a damselfish endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago and Johnston Atoll. Our data indicate that C. verater exhibits a dichotomy of high levels of vertical genetic connectivity with more limited horizontal connectivity across its range. The patterns of horizontal connectivity can inform management of marine protected areas in the archipelago. The lack of genetic differentiation between shallow and mesophotic populations illustrates the link between MCEs and shallow reefs, with MCEs possibly serving as sources to shallow populations. This finding lends support to the argument for protecting mesophotic reefs because they are ecologically significant to the rest of the coral reef ecosystem.

CS2.12  16:05  After the indicator is chosen: Progress towards the recovery target for Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) in Puget Sound, USA. Francis, TB *, University of Washington Tacoma, Puget Sound Institute; Levin, PS NOAA Northwest Fisheries Science Center; Sheton, AO NOAA Northwest Fisheries Science Center;

Abstract: Integrated Ecosystem Assessments (IEAs) offer a framework for science-driven ecosystem based management (EBM) in marine ecosystems. A critical step in the implementation of an IEA is the selection of ecosystem indicators, and evaluating the risk posed to those indicators by various threats to the ecosystem. Pacific herring has been selected as an ecosystem indicator in the Puget Sound, USA ecosystem by the regional management agency, but there is little agreement on the leading threats to herring and, therefore, on strategies for recovery. Here we will discuss the efforts being conducted by a team of collaborators in academia, federal and state agencies, and NGOs to identify the leading threats to the recovery of Puget Sound herring. These strategies include analysis of historical data, field studies and qualitative modeling. We are assessing the potential influence of changes in peak spawn timing, predation, loss of habitat, land use, and contaminants on critical life stages of Pacific herring. Results from these investigations will be incorporated into a population model for herring, and inform larger modeling efforts to link Pacific herring to ecosystem services and indicators of human wellbeing. Together, this suite of activities will inform next steps for making progress towards the recovery target set for this indicator, and towards effective EBM of Puget Sound herring.

CS2.13  16:10  Elicitation of experts’ knowledge to inform marine conservation planning. Jobstvogt, N *, University of Aberdeen;

Abstract: Highlighting the ecological, social, and economic benefits of marine areas via the ecosystem services (ES) concept can be a potent tool on the road to conservation success. For the oceans, our understanding of these anthropocentric benefits is particularly limited and assessment of marine ES is often reduced to relatively easy to assess provisioning (e.g. fish) and regulating services (e.g. carbon storage). How underlying ecosystem processes impact on these ES is not well understood, which might undermine the efficacy of conservation management advice based on ES assessments. This paper presents a case study that elicited ES dependencies from a panel of deep-sea scientists using a Delphi approach (a structured expert consultation method). Ecosystem processes within a submarine canyon environment as well as their temporal and spatial dependencies in respect to ES supply were highlighted. The process highlighted where consensus among scientists exists and where uncertainties and evidence gaps remain. This paper makes a call for structured expert consultations to inform marine conservation management on where, when and why ecosystem services are supplied. It also showcases how this approach can inform future marine conservation scenarios and marine spatial planning. Presenting holistic information on ES is particularly imperative when the supply of ES and the more implicit benefits from their underlying processes originate from different management areas.

CS2.14  16:15  Fishing effects, recovery patterns and management strategies for long-lived and structural precious corals. Montero-Serra, I *, Departament d’Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.; Linares, C Departament d’Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.; García, M Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain; Pancaldi, F Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain; Frleta-Valic, M Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain; Merad, D LSIS UMR CNRS 7296, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseille, France; Drap, P LSIS UMR CNRS 7296, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Marseille, France; Garrabou, J , Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain;

Abstract: Precious corals are long-lived structural invertebrates that have been historically overfished and their conservation is currently a worldwide concern. However, the biological processes underlying their recovery are poorly known. Here, we examined fishing effects and recovery process of the red coral Corallium rubrum by analyzing long-term photographic series taken on two populations that were harvested. We compared the relative importance of sexual reproduction and re-growth as drivers of resilience. Fishing heavily impacted coral populations causing large decreases in biomass and strong size-class distribution shifts towards young populations dominated by small colonies. At the end of the study (after 5 and 7 years) a lack of recovery was observed in both populations. Low recruitment rates and high mortality of new recruits demonstrated limited success of sexual reproduction. Adversely, low mortality of harvested adults and large proportion of colonies showing new branches highlighted the importance of re-growth in the recovery process. These results suggested that leaving the basal section of the colonies when harvesting can enhance the resilience of coral populations. Further, the low adult mortality in harvested colonies and the biomass reduction in both populations indicate that abundance may not be an adequate metric to assess their conservation status because it can underestimate fishing effects when affected populations persist having lost their structural function.

CS2.15  15:15  Describing regional fish connectivity patterns: Integration of post-larval otolith sclerochronology information in larval dispersal models. Muntoni, M *, Department of Life and Environmental Science, University of Cagliari, Italy; Rocklin, D Department of Ecology and Hydrology, University of Murcia, Spain; Raventos Klein, N Barcelona Otolith Reading Services, CEAB-CSIC, Spain; Beuvier, J Mercator Océan - CNRM-GAME, UMR 3589 Météo-France CNRS, France; García Charton, JA Department of Ecology and Hydrology, University of Murcia, Spain; Murenu, M Department of Life and Environmental Science, University of Cagliari, Italy;

Abstract: Understanding connectivity patterns among coastal fish populations is a crucial step in the management of marine resources. However, quantifying and measuring the exchange among fish populations is still a hard task because of the difficulties in tracking the trajectory and fate of the larval phase. Moreover, there is a lack of basic knowledge about the bio-ecological traits of many marine coastal exploited species, usually related to their bi-partite life cycles. To fill these gaps, a variety of approaches have been developed to assess the fish larval dispersal and to describe the patterns of fish population connectivity. The use of models as a tool to identify and measure these patterns in the marine environment is continuously increasing. However, the accuracy of the models is strongly dependent from the precision of the input parameters, that often are not available at regional scale. One of the most important parameter for evaluating larval dispersal is the pelagic larval duration (PLD). Here, we used the post-larval otolith sclerochronology of the species Mullus surmuletus to evaluate the spawning date and the PLD in our area of interest, for which these information were not available. Then, we calibrated the dispersal model using the information previously obtained for improving the reliability of the model’s prediction. The combination of these approaches is useful to reconstruct the history of the larvae and to describe the patterns of regional connectivity.

CS2.16  15:20  A flicker of hope: Inter-nesting of green turtles near oil and gas refineries in Terengganu. Sharifah Ruqaiyah Syed Mustafa *, WWF-Malaysia;

Abstract: Kerteh is an oil and gas (O&G) industrial area where flares are brightly lit at night. Before the inception of oil O&G industry more than 2 decades ago, the 5 km stretch of beach in Kerteh was an active turtle nesting ground. Despite the light pollution by O&G refineries, turtles still lay their eggs. Nevertheless the number of turtles nesting on the beach is thought to have decreased in comparison to 30 years ago. From 2008 to 2013, 17 female green turtles (Chelonia mydas) were tracked using satellite transmitters at two beaches, Ma’Daerah and Chakar Hutan in Kerteh, just next to the O&G refineries. Home range analysis using the Kernel-density estimate (KDE) indicates that their range extends up to 43km off-shore from the point of release. Their core inter-nesting area (95% estimator) however stretched to about 30 km of the coastline. About 20% of the GPS locations were concentrated inside the Kerteh Port (harbour limit) restricted area, a critical inter-nesting area for the green turtles. The movement of the green turtles within the inter-nesting and nesting ground near the brightly lit area likely indicates the ability of the turtles in adapting to environmental change for at least the past 2 decades. Further development of the land nearby is unadvisable. Thus, it is strongly suggested that a marine protected area be established at the two beaches that includes the harbour limit to facilitate an enabling environment with minimised disturbance for turtles to nest.

CS2.17  15:25  Pelagic sex: using sperm competition theory to infer mating systems in a suite of eastern tropical Pacific dolphins. Thornton, AE *, Scripps Institution of Oceanography;

Abstract: This study builds off a greater body of work conducted by NOAA SWFSC cetacean biologists, using data extracted from the life history archive of animals killed and collected by fishery observers as incidental bycatch from tuna purse seine fishery operations within the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP). In a 2003 Perrin & Mesnick article in Marine Mammal Science, they examined geographic variation in the mating systems of two sub-populations of spinner dolphins in the ETP, concluding that high sexual dimorphism and smaller testes size provide strong evidence that Eastern spinner dolphins have a more polygynous mating system than Whitebelly spinners. As observed reproductive behavioral data for pelagic species are impractical to obtain, we turn to proxy indicators of male mating strategy to infer mating systems. In this study, we apply Perrin & Mesnick’s hypothesis to four ETP delphinids; specifically, we examine one aspect of reproductive morphology - combined testes and epididymis size. We explore whether mating system inferences can be made based upon a gradient of relative testis size, which increase with the degree of sperm competition. We quantify relative testes size by species, providing a descriptive review of ETP dolphin mating systems. Preliminary results reveal a theoretical scale of biological polygyny inferred using sperm competition theory and new information towards understanding ETP delphinid recovery rates following interactions with purse seine fisheries.

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