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Participation in marine conservation science (e.g. citizen and indigenous science)

Room: Lomond Auditorium     2014-08-17; 15:00 - 17:00

NB: Unless specified otherwise, presentations are 15 minutes in length, and speed presentations are 5 mins in length.

Chair(s)/Moderator(s): Arrivillaga, Alejandro

C27.1  15:00  A European Shark Tagging Programme and the importance of volunteers in ongoing scientific research into shark populations. Burrett, I , Scottish Sea Angling Conservation Network; Thorburn, JA The University of Aberdeen; Wright, E *Scottish Shark Tagging Programme;

Abstract: Many of Scotland’s native sharks are considered critically endangered or severely depleted as a result of overfishing and other anthropogenic pressures. The Scottish Shark Tagging Programme (SSTP) was established to tag and record data on Scotland’s shark, skate and ray species for conservation efforts. As a citizen science project, the SSTP relies heavily on the participation of volunteer sea anglers who target sharks on a strict catch-and-release basis. This has lead to a database of nearly 7,000 records spanning several decades and providing insight into the movements of sharks in EU waters. With some species passing through territorial waters of up to five EU member states it is vital data collection continues to facilitate the development of sustainable stock management at an appropriate scale. This program has shown volunteer anglers are a reliable source of valuable data. By working alongside Government bodies such as Marine Scotland Science, this data has served as a foundation for two research projects and three PhD studentships. This presentation will focus on the importance of volunteers for marine conservation and also explore the progress made in establishing collaborative science across Scotland and Europe. The SSTP model has been adopted by other EU states in the hope of providing more information on the cross-border movements of migratory species. The expansion of this type of work will help ensure shared marine resources are managed in a sustainable way.

C27.2  15:15  A Lucid Dream: Community Participation in the Marine Protected Area (MPA) Establishment Process in Indonesia. Baitoningsih, Wasistini *, Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (ZMT);

Abstract: Indonesia entered a new era in the MPA establishment process when new legislation introduced the requirement for community participation into the process, so that it is no longer steered by the central government alone. However, the concept of community participation in the legislation is unclear and remains open to interpretation. This research looks at the implementation of the new legislation, particularly how the concept of community participation is being interpreted and perceived by different actors. The actors involved in the MPA establishment process are governments, communities, and NGOs. This research uses qualitative methods such as document analysis, interviews, and focus group discussions (FGDs) to study the level of community participation and its rationalisation by different actors. This research took place in two sites where the new legislation is being implemented. The two sites represent two different government levels: the Savu Sea Marine National Park in East Nusa Tenggara is a national level MPA, and the Berau District MPA in East Kalimantan is a district level MPA. Current results of this research show: (i) NGOs play major role in influencing the concept of community participation, (ii) the new legislations have complicated procedures and they remained unknown to the communities, (iii) the involvement of communities in the MPA establishment process is not proceed with further engagement, such as involving communities in the MPA management.

C27.3  15:30  A Latin America cohort of Fisheries Replenishment Zones Pride campaigns: social marketing and technical assistance for community-based marine conservation. . Alejandro Arrivillaga *, Rare; Rafael Calderon Rare; Marissa Anzueto Rare; Sandra Conde Rare; Ulises Mendez Rare; Tjerk van Rooij Rare;

Abstract: In 2011 Rare launched a cohort of 9 Pride campaigns in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and Ecuador, for the promotion of Fisheries Replenishment Zones (FRZs) through better community engagement and increased compliance. The overall goal was to reduce overfishing and improve food security, through increased community participation in the management. The cohort developed a hypothesis of impact that captured the knowledge, attitude and behavior changes needed to reduce threats and achieve conservation results. Social marketing, technical assistance and barrier removal were integral components of every campaign, including increasing knowledge and conversations about the benefits of the FRZ, increasing compliance of existing FRZs and increasing hectares under protection. Following Rare´s Theory of Change, results were measured across the cohort for specific objectives. Among notable results, 4 campaigns signed agreements to protect existing FRZs, under which 8,448 hectares of existing FRZs are being respected and enforced by local fishers; two campaigns signed agreements to create new FRZs, under which 114 new hectares under FRZ protection were established through the collaboration between local fishers and government officials; 23.3 average percentage point increase in the targeted behavior; and 17.9 average percentage point increase in fishers’ compliance with FRZ regulations (6 campaigns; self-reported through a social survey).

C27.4  15:45  Learning in dialogue: Future scientists and stakeholders analyze together the state of fisheries in Uruguay. Artecona, F , Facultad de Ciencias; Bergós, L Unidad de Enseñanza, Facultad de Ciencias; Cardozo, J Unidad de Enseñanza, Facultad de Ciencias; García, M Facultad de Ciencias; Grattarola, F Unidad de Extensión, Facultad de Ciencias; Gutiérrez, J Facultad de Ciencias; Martigani, F Unidad de Educación Permanente, Facultad de Ciencias; Szephegyi, MN *, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge; Vida Silvestre Uruguay;

Abstract: In the last years the state university in Uruguay has promoted a new practical learning approach which integrates different disciplines and research and highlights the value of non academic knowledge. The goal is to train professionals committed to national concerns and open to co-produce knowledge in dialogue with others. In this frame, oceanography students organized a five day workshop named Fishing in Uruguay: in dialogue with the protagonists. The workshop was the conclusion of a six month work, reviewing information, interviewing stakeholders and structuring the event to promote the interaction among participants. Discussed topics ranged from fishing strategies and impact to governance and livelihoods, with speakers representing research institutions, NGOs, business, government, unions and artisanal fishermen. The concluding output was the importance of approaching fisheries as complex systems where marine resources and society deeply interact and where different perspectives must be included to reach creative solutions to its problems. The evaluation of the process was extremely positive, by students and stakeholders, particularly for being a space that allowed open, honest and constructive discussions among very different actors, being all part of the education of our future professionals. Therefore, we recommend this approach to promote participation and to engage marine science not only with management, but also with the everyday and humane reality of fisheries.

C27.5  16:00  Sustainability of marine protected areas: the role of governance, social capital and participation. Hogg, KE *, Universidad de Murcia; Semitiel-Garcia, M Universidad de Murcia; Noguera-Mendez, P Universidad de Murcia;

Abstract: MPAs and their associated societies, form socio-ecological systems (SESs) that are complex, adaptive and nested across scales. This complexity raises challenges in terms of governability. Participatory forms of governance are seen as the way forward. Yet, despite the success of participatory marine resource management in other parts of the world, such advances are the exception in the Mediterranean. To date empirical studies of SESs remain limited, given the difficulties in combining interdisciplinary theories and frameworks. This work provides a framework and novel methods for quantitative assessment of SESs and the complex networks they encompass. Applied within Cabo de Palos MPA, Spain, this work reveals whether the attributes of governance that encourage effective management, and enhance the capacity to achieve sustainability exist. Two specific proposals are explored: 1) participation builds trust, and helps foster a shared understanding and 2) polycentric and multi-layered institutions facilitate the translation and negotiation of information and knowledge allowing societies to respond more adaptively at appropriate levels. This work unravels the complex SES and reveals the governance effectiveness of Cabo de Palos MPA in achieving specific conservation, human well-being and sustainable development objectives, and identifies the factors required to improve governance for long term sustainability. The results from this study will provide ‘good practice’ guidance, transferable to other contextually similar MPAs.

C27.6  16:15  The largest artificial reefs deploymentprogram of Brazil: a tool for marine conservation and sustainability of fishing resources. Bumbeer-Couto, JA *, Universidade Federal do Paraná; Brandini, FP Universidade de São Paulo; Cattani, AP Associação MarBrasil; Robert, MC Associação Marbrasil; Santos, LO Associação Marbrasil; Silva, AS Instituto Federal do Paraná;

Abstract: The subtropical coastal zone of Paraná state, southern Brazil, naturally lack hard substrata, and even so, is home to high marine and coastal biodiversity, which supports important artisanal fishing grounds. However, in the last four decades, unregulated commercial shrimp trawlers, in addition to other anthropogenic impacts, have caused the loss of natural habitats as well as conflicts with local fishing communities. A long-term program based on an anti-trawling system and artificial reefs (AR) was established to protect these habitats and contribute to the recovery of marine biodiversity and fish stocks. The program is currently managed through the Marine Biodiversity Recovery Program (REBIMAR).From 2009 to 2013, commercial trawling was excluded from a strategic area of 533 ha where 2590 AR structures were deployed. The placement of ARs was determined through a participative process, involving the local community knowledge and a series of ecological studies. Furthermore, ARs are providing additional substrate for the recruitment of benthic organisms and new habitat as refugee for reef fish species. As an example we have the endangered Goliath Grouper (Epinephelus itajara), which was no longer seen in Paraná. These results, allied with environmental education and socioeconomic input, are showing positive impacts for underwater local tourism, increasing economic input for coastal communities and improving the local biodiversity valorization.

C27.7  16:30  On the EDGE of Existence: prioritising Coral species for conservation. Short, R *, Zoological Society of London; Waterman, C Zoological Society of London; Koldewey, H Zoological Society of London; Couchman, O Zoological Society of London;

Abstract: The Zoological Society of London’s (ZSL) EDGE of Existence programme prioritises species for conservation based on their Evolutionary Distinctiveness (ED; calculated from a species-level phylogeny) weighted by Global Endangerment (GE; representing IUCN Red List threat categories), to preserve critically important evolutionary history. ZSL promotes actions towards conserving EDGE species through a Fellowship programme where early-career conservationists direct applied conservation research toward one or more EDGE species in their country of origin. A research grant is coupled with formal training and mentoring over two years with further encouragement to scale-up their projects based on their new skills. Scleractinian corals are the first wholly marine taxa to receive EDGE scores. Coral reefs underpin one of the most diverse ecosystems on earth. Despite this we are rapidly losing our tropical reefs at an unprecedented rate and mitigation efforts have not gained necessary momentum to halt this. Reef decline has resulted in the loss of important food sources and an increasingly important mechanism of coastal protection, but we are also losing a significant amount of evolutionary history. Conservation action is understandably usually focused on reefs as a whole, but species-level action is conspicuously lacking. To date ZSL has supported six EDGE Fellows working on coral species worldwide and the efforts of these researchers will be presented.

C27.8  16:45  Using place-based research to engage Indigenous citizens in marine conservation in the Pacific Northwest. Augustine, S. *, Northwest Indian College; Cardinal, N. Parks Canada; Dallimore, A. Royal Roads University; Hallatt, S. Capital Regional District; Hatch, M. Northwest Indian College; Smith, N. Parks Canada;

Abstract: Indigenous participation in marine conservation is often obstructed by complex ecological, social and political relationships surrounding marine resources. Indigenous peoples in the Pacific Northwest are marine dependent and have mixed responses to formal conservation tactics. This work presents solutions-based projects that shift conservation from a dependency model that prescribes top-down legislation and harvesting restrictions, to a capacity-building model, that provides educational opportunities for Indigenous citizens connected to traditional marine foods. Tying together lessons from three projects, we explore the ability of place-based research to engage Indigenous citizens in marine conservation. We aim to build community capacity by facilitating access to traditional marine resources, encouraging intergenerational links, and providing marine science education. Projects include rebuilding clam gardens, investigating the use of eelgrass bacteria to reduce harmful algal blooms that restrict shellfish harvest and integrating traditional foods into regional policy. The projects use a variety of tactics to foster Indigenous participation: pairing youth with marine scientists, hosting intergenerational feasts, and developing school curriculum. Together these tactics support communities to become better versed in marine science, while increasing access to traditional foods and providing opportunities for Indigenous people to become familiar with conservation decision making.

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