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Food security and the oceans (e.g., sustainable fisheries, aquaculture, and livelihoods)

Room: Alsh     2014-08-18; 15:00 - 17:00

NB: Unless specified otherwise, presentations are 15 minutes in length, and speed presentations are 5 mins in length.

Chair(s)/Moderator(s): Zivian, Anna

C21.1  15:00  Innovative measures in the Canadian Pacific groundfish bottom trawl fishery greatly reduce coral and sponge catch. Bodtker, K M *, Living Oceans Society; Wallace, S David Suzuki Foundation; Driscoll, J D Living Oceans Society; Turris, B Canadian Groundfish Research and Conservation Society; Mose, B. Deep Sea Trawlers Association;

Abstract: Innovative conservation measures, including the world’s first ‘habitat bycatch conservation limits’, were added to the Integrated Fisheries Management Plan for Groundfish in Canada’s Pacific Region in April 2012. A unique multi-year collaboration between the British Columbia groundfish bottom trawl industry and conservation organisations produced agreed upon measures to reduce bottom trawl impacts on sensitive habitats, such as coral and sponge, and deepwater slow growing species. The measures also intend to improve the sustainability rating of the fishery. Management tools, including bycatch limits, encounter protocols, and freezing the footprint of the fishery, were developed cooperatively by industry and conservation organizations, and then implemented by Canada’s Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), the regulatory authority. Spatial analysis work provided crucial support and was shared among the conservation organizations, DFO and industry. Habitat criteria from the Seafood Watch fisheries assessment methodology were used as the platform to develop specific measures as part of an ecosystem approach to habitat management. Evaluation of the first 23 months of fishing activity following implementation indicates immediate behavioural responses by the fleet measured by area fished, encounter rates and total catch of corals and sponges. The results to date suggest that incentives for individual fishermen to avoid corals and sponges are working to minimize habitat damage.

C21.2  15:15  Impact of local fisheries on coastal dolphin populations and associated community-based conservation actions in southwest Madagascar. Cerchio, S *, Wildlife Conservation Society; Andrianarivelo, N Wildlife Conservation Society; Andrianantenaina, BN Wildlife Conservation Society;

Abstract: Coastal dolphins in southwest Madagascar are impacted in Vezo artisanal fisheries by directed hunting in drive fisheries and incidental by-catch in shark gillnets. Interview surveys in the communes of Anakao and Befandefa indicated nine species caught, predominantly spinner, bottlenose and humpback dolphins. At minimum over 5,000 dolphins were taken in Anakao and 2,000 in Befandefa over a 30 year period, likely to be a gross underestimate. Meat was consumed locally and sold in a nearby city center. To address this threat, since 2007 an intervention model was developed to 1) create local conservation associations, 2) develop local traditional laws, or Dina, 3) educate and raise awareness and 4) develop alternative livelihoods through ecotourism. Two community associations for conservation of marine mammals were created in each zone respectively in 2008 and 2013. Dina prohibiting taking of marine mammals was ratified and enforced in Anakao, and is under development in Befandefa. Community-based whale watching was successfully developed in Anakao, a tourism center, yielding an 8-fold increase in clients from 2010-2012, and total revenue in 2012 of USD 22,000. The Anakao community reports cessation of organized hunting since 2009, supported by anecdotal reports of unavailability of dolphin meat. In Befandefa, the same strategy has wide-based community support, however challenges remain for development of alternative livelihoods due to the absence of a general tourism trade.

C21.3  15:30  Community-based marine protected area in Papua New Guinea provides long-term protection of grouper populations. Waldie, PA *, ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Australia; Almany, GR Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France; Cinner, JE ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Australia; Hamilton, RJ The Nature Conservancy, Australia; Potuku, T The Nature Conservancy, Papua New Guinea; Rhodes, KL College of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resource Management, The University of Hawaii, USA; Robinson, J ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Australia;

Abstract: Customary Tenure (CT) systems are increasingly being utilised as foundations for contemporary tropical fisheries management, despite their disputed suitability for protecting large, mobile species. In Papua New Guinea, a small community-based no-take Marine Protected Area (MPA) was established in 2004 to protect a heavily depleted multi-species spawning aggregation, leading to a short-term recovery of populations of camouflage and brown-marbled grouper. The MPA is currently the sole management strategy for these groupers which are frequently harvested away from the aggregation site. To determine if the MPA is providing localised fisheries benefits we examined the movement of 72 individuals, tagged with acoustic transmitters and tracked using an array of 20 receivers. A further 465 individuals were fitted with external tags, for incentivised return from the local fishery. These movement patterns were compared with MPA boundaries, CT areas and resource use rights (from 50 key informant and household surveys) and distribution of fishing pressure (from creel surveys). Underwater visual censuses established that the initial recovery of these populations has been sustained over ten years. Further, the CT groups which bore the opportunity costs of establishing the MPA have largely recouped the benefits of the population recoveries. Our findings demonstrate that where vital life-history events are protected, community-based MPAs can help to safeguard valuable near-shore fisheries.

C21.4  15:45  Experimental removal of the introduced grouper, roi (Cephalopholis argus) in Hawaii: a community-based approach to coral reef ecosystem restoration. Giddens, Jonatha *, University of Hawaii; Friedlander, Alan University of Hawaii; Conklin, Eric The Nature Conservancy; Wiggins, Chad The Nature Conservancy; Stamoulis, Kosta University of Hawaii; Donovan, Mary University of Hawaii;

Abstract: Invasive species are a growing concern for marine biodiversity. This research focused on the feasibility of removing the introduced peacock grouper, locally known as roi (Cephalopholis argus), as a management tool for Hawaiian coral reef ecosystem restoration. The objectives of this study were to investigate the dynamics of roi on 1.2 hectares of coral reef at Puako, Hawaii, and 1) compare population density estimate methods in order to accurately evaluate abundance 2) estimate population mortality and catchability rates, and 3) quantify the re-colonization rates by mapping distribution and movements in response to a depletion experiment. The number of individuals removed during a fish-down experiment provides a direct measure of the initial population abundance (19.5 roi ha-1). A Leslie depletion model yielded the most accurate assessment of initial density (-12.7% error) compared to belt transects (+82.3% error) and tow-board census (-69.1% error). Estimates of natural mortality were low (0.0-0.08), and fishing mortality ranged from negligible to 8.0 % yr-1. Roi movement was monitored through a mark and re-capture program. Tagged individuals traveled 50-150 m from the periphery of the removal area toward its center (one roi every 1-2 months). This study engaged the Hawaiian fishing community in quantifying the feasibility of roi removal as an ecosystem management tool, and provides methods for assessing and controlling marine invasive fish species.

C21.5  16:00  Measuring good governance for coral reefs: Perceptions of Caribbean communities . Turner, RA *, Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, University of the West Indies, Barbados; Fitzsimmons, C School of Marine Science & Technology, Newcastle University, UK; Forster, F School of Marine Science & Technology, Newcastle University, UK; Mahon, R Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, University of the West Indies, Barbados; Peterson, A Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, University of the West Indies, Barbados; Stead, SM School of Marine Science & Technology, Newcastle University, UK;

Abstract: Good governance is considered a prerequisite for successful marine resource management in the context of environmental decline and increasing anthropogenic pressures. Few studies empirically examine governance processes, or explore links between perceptions of resource users and the governance structures that influence their behaviour. This paper quantifies resource users’ perceptions of governance processes in twelve coral reef-dependent communities across four Caribbean countries. We assess perceptions in relation to established principles of ‘good governance’. Multiple correspondence analysis indicates that perceptions of coral reef governance process can be reliably described using two themes, institutional acceptance and engagement, which explain over 50% of variation in perceptions. These themes can be used to explore relationships between user perceptions and expected outcomes of good governance, including support for management and compliance with regulations. Cluster analysis provides unique empirical evidence of the structural characteristics of governance arrangements identified as supporting positive resource user perceptions. Findings have important policy implications for the design of management systems and governance structures, identifying potentially transferable characteristics that may be more successful in achieving conservation objectives and sustainable resource use.

C21.6  16:15  Accounting for land-sea interactions to minimize impacts of expanding palm oil on coral reef ecosystems and fisheries. Tulloch, VJD *, Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Brown, CJ The Global Change Institute & Marine Spatial Ecology Lab, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia ; Klein, CJ Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Possingham, HP Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia;

Abstract: Effective marine spatial planning is crucial to manage direct stressors to biodiversity, but does not typically address one of the most significant threats to marine ecosystems, land-based run-off. Although millions of people depend on coastal ecosystem goods and services, management decisions often ignore cross-system interactions, increasing the potential for one sector (e.g. agriculture) to negatively impact another sector (e.g. fishing). Integrated land-sea planning is urgently needed, to ensure that land development occurs sustainably with minimal impact on marine ecosystems and fisheries. Here, we used coupled land-sea ecosystem models in spatial planning to evaluate the impacts of palm oil on coral reef ecosystems in New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. Linking models of watershed run-off, marine water quality and habitat quality, we targeted multiple planning objectives of conservation and resource development to identify priority areas for management in the land and sea, showing how management priorities change depending on future land-use scenarios. By taking into consideration land-sea interactions, we found important trade-offs between expanding palm oil on the land and costs to artisanal fisheries, with diminishing returns for agricultural development in certain areas. Our approach provides a valuable evaluation and management tool for planners of data-poor coral reefs affected by changing land-use.

C21.7  16:30  Effect of fine scale habitat characteristics on the population density of gadoid fishes. Elliott. S *, University of Glasgow; Bailey. D University of Glasgow; Heath. M University of Strathclyde; Turrell. B Marine Scotland Science;

Abstract: Demersal gadoid fishes such as cod and haddock have been commercially important in the UK since the early 19th century. While there is evidence of recovery in North Sea, the population sub units to the west have not recovered. Unlike some North Sea cod, west coast cod stocks use coastal areas as nursery habitats, leading to the possibility that the quality or quantity of habitat might be involved in the failure of their recovery. Stereo-video Baited Underwater Camera surveys were conducted across a range of habitat types of varying complexity, between June and September 2013 within the Firth of Clyde. Relative species abundance and lengths were measured. Habitat type (geological and biological) was assessed using point counts within images. A significant increase in size of juvenile cod and haddock was seen from July to the end of September. The highest numbers of cod and haddock were seen in habitats of medium to low structural complexity. A decrease in relative abundance of cod was observed during the period of data collection. While this research demonstrates important habitat types for gadoids, further work is planned to assess whether habitat complexity may be affecting fish behaviour and whether the extent of the most valuable habitat types is a limiting factor to recruitment into spawning stocks of gadoids. This work should reveal whether changes in benthic habitat availability either because of climate change or due to restoration work will affect recruitment.

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