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Food security and the oceans (e.g., sustainable fisheries, aquaculture, and livelihoods)

Room: Alsh     2014-08-15; 15:00 - 17:00

NB: Unless specified otherwise, presentations are 15 minutes in length, and speed presentations are 5 mins in length.

Chair(s)/Moderator(s): Santos, Mudjekeewis

C19.1  15:00  Measuring the effects of a seasonal fishing closure on the abundance of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) using a Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) design. Clarke, J *, University of Glasgow; Bailey, DM Univeristy of Glasgow; Wright, PJ Marine Scotland Science;

Abstract: Few studies have been conducted to look at the effect of area closures to protect spawning aggregations and knowledge gaps remain. In this study a BACI structured statistical design is used to assess the effect of a seasonal closed area to protect spawning cod off the West Coast of Scotland. Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) of mature cod landed by the international bottom trawl survey were used for the analysis between 1986 and 2010. Change in abundance of three distinct subgroups of cod (found in the Clyde, Minch and the Southwest) was assessed before and after the introduction of a seasonal closed area to the mouth of the Clyde. The other two spawning sites were used as controls as they have no spatial-temporal protection. CPUE of cod was modelled as a function of Time (Before (1986-2000) and After (2001-2010)), across two zones (impact (Clyde) and control (Minch and SW)). Abundance of mature cod decreased in the three areas over the time period of the study, however no effect was observed in abundance of mature cod with the introduction of the seasonal closed area. This may suggest that the current seasonal closed area in the Clyde is not enough to protect the numbers of mature cod spawning in the mouth of the Clyde.

C19.2  15:15  How genetic markers are helping fisheries management and marine biodiversity conservation in the Philippines. Santos, MD *, Genetic Fingerprinting Laboratory,National Fiaheries Research and Development Institute, Philippines; Willette, DA Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles; Thomas, RC Jr. Genetic Fingerprinting Laboratory,National Fiaheries Research and Development Institute, Philippines; Ventolero, MFH Genetic Fingerprinting Laboratory,National Fiaheries Research and Development Institute, Philippines; Pedrosa-Gersmio, I Genetic Fingerprinting Laboratory,National Fiaheries Research and Development Institute, Philippines; Asis, AMJM Genetic Fingerprinting Laboratory,National Fiaheries Research and Development Institute, Philippines; Agmata, AB Genetic Fingerprinting Laboratory,National Fiaheries Research and Development Institute, Philippines; Lozano, AMD , Genetic Fingerprinting Laboratory,National Fiaheries Research and Development Institute, Philippines;

Abstract: The Philippine fisheries is among the largest fisheries in the world in terms of catch and production. It contributes significantly to the national economy and it provides employment and food to majority of coastal communities, which comprises about 70% of the total population of the country. In terms of biodiversity, the country harbours the highest number of marine species per square area in the world. Unfortunately, the sustainability of this rich resource and diversity is threatened by unsustainable fishing practices and now climate change concerns. Here, we present our results on applying genetic markers (including DNA barcodes) to address some of issues surrounding commercially important and priority aquatic species in the Philippines. We identified a number of fish and invertebrate species not previously known to occur in the country; and clarified the taxonomy of some; showed population structure of pelagic fish species e.g. tunas and sardines in the water of the country and in the region; elucidated juvenile fisheries of rabbitfishes and milkfish; detected mislabelling in fisheries by-products; and provided evidence in the trade of endangered and regulated aquatic species e.g. manta rays. Many of these results gave birth to policies and management interventions such as seasonal closures, enforcement activities and management plans that contribute directly to addressing food security and marine biodiversity conservation in the country and in the region.

C19.3  15:30  Acoustical identification of Sea turtles using sidescan sonar. Perez-Arjona, I *, Universitat Politècnica de València; Espinosa, V Universitat Politècnica de València; Alonso E. Universitat Politècnica de València; Ordóñez P Universitat Politècnica de València; Rodilla M Universitat Politècnica de València; Castaño J. Universitat Politècnica de València; Esteban J.A: Oceanogràfic. Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias.; Eymar J , Generalitat Valenciana;

Abstract: Underwater acoustics has been widely used as a tool for identifying, evaluating and monitoring underwater biomass. The reference acoustical variable used for such purposes is the scatterer target strength (TS), given by the ratio of the returned energy versus the incident energy on the object. The aim of this work is to use the same tool for identifying sea turtles and distinguishing them from other species, providing a tool for detecting them and evaluate sea turtle populations. The sound propagation speed through the turtle carapace has been experimentally measured which allows performing numerical simulations to compare with the experimental results. In situ measurements were performed in the Mediterranean Sea coast, using specimens of Caretta caretta which were released from a recovery center property of the local Valencian Government. We used a 200KHz sidescan sonar transducer with an aperture angle of 49x1º, covering a large work vertical area. The echo signals corresponding to the turtles were identified and quantified.

C19.4  15:45  Historical reconstruction of commercial and recreational spatio-temporal patterns reveals a Great Barrier Reef spawning fishery in double jeopardy. Buckley, S.B *, University of Queensland; Thurstan, R.H University of Queensland; Tobin, A James Cook University; Pandolfi, J.M University of Queensland;

Abstract: Fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) support productive and valuable fisheries yet are extremely vulnerable to overexploitation and depletion. Assessment and subsequent management of FSA fisheries requires analysis of long-term spatio-temporal trends in fishery catch and effort to overcome shifting baselines. We compile newspaper archives, fisher knowledge, and contemporary catch logs to reconstruct a century-long commercial catch time series for Australia’s Great Barrier Reef Spanish mackerel FSA fishery (1911-2011). After correcting for changes in fishing power and effort, average catch rates were found to decline nearly 3-fold, from 140 to 40 fish.vessel.trip between 1934 and 2011. Spatial effort contracted to just 22% of FSA areas presumably as FSAs were extirpated. Fishers travelled further offshore from traditional spawning grounds due to the commercial extinction of the northern spawning fishery, declining catch rates and the incursion of recreational effort. Recreational fishers targeting historic inshore spawning grounds since 1970 are unaware of spawning aggregations, indicating the disappearance of spawning components. Retrospective evaluation of the spatio-temporal dynamics of the Great Barrier Reef Spanish mackerel spawning fishery reveal gross changes in the spawning patterns and productivity that are not evident in contemporary records. We provide empirical evidence relevant for effective management and the long-term sustainability of FSA fisheries.

C19.5  16:00  Net-Works: From fishing nets to carpets. Hill, N *, Zoological Society of London; Daneshpay, F Zoological Society of London;

Abstract: Net-Works applies an inclusive business model to tackle the growing problem of waste nets in rural fishing communities of developing nations. Mono-filament nylon nets are becoming increasingly common in artisanal fisheries because they are cheap and effective at fishing relative to alternatives. However, these nets need frequent replacement, and for the most part fishers have no means of disposing of old nets sustainably. Improper disposal has substantial environmental consequences, including undermining the resource base through ghost fishing. Working with Interface, one of the world’s leading carpet tile producers, the Zoological Society of London has pioneered a community-based supply chain to tackle this issue. Nylon is a high-performance engineering plastic. When Aquafil, one of Interface’s yarn suppliers, developed a technology to recycle nylon in a way that retains these properties an opportunity was created. During this presentation, we will outline the cross-sectoral Net-Works initiative and how we have established an inclusive business model that resulted in the collection of over 27,000 kg of nets from 14 pilot collection centres in the central Philippines within the first 18 months of operation. We will discuss how this has helped bring financial services and additional income to the households involved. We will describe some of the challenges and opportunities we have encountered on the way, and our aims for the future.

C19.6  16:15  Fish aggregations occur globally. We have a database that shows the status! Russell, MW *, Science and Conservation of Fish Aggregations (SCRFA);

Abstract: Science and Conservation of Fish Aggregations (SCRFA) has developed a comprehensive web-based database to assist in understanding fish aggregations globally. The SCRFA Fish Aggregation Database contains management, traditional knowledge and fisheries exploitation history, and importantly information on biological and habitat characteristics and the global status of the world's fish aggregations. We have developed a set of key parameters to keep a consistent dataset that can be easily analysed for trends and to help further research into this critically important life history event for many fish. Unfortunately, because fisheries are often poorly managed, and as populations of many of the larger fishes that form aggregations are slow to replenish following fishing, many aggregations are decreasing and some have completely disappeared. Coral reefs in the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans are so extensive that it is essentially only within the past decade that scientists have realized that the declines in aggregations seen on these reefs are not unique, but a global phenomenon. The vastness of the world's oceans is no longer enough to ensure the continued survival of fishes that aggregate.

C19.7  16:30  Marine conservation consequences of changes in political regimes in Chile . Talloni A. N. *, University of British Columbia; Lam M. University of British Columbia; Pitcher T. University of British Coulmbia;

Abstract: Chile is amongst the top ten producers and exporters of marine species in the world. Thus, its marine resources have been intensively exploited in the last 40 years, peaking in 1995. Currently, several fish stocks are fully and overexploited in the country, jeopardizing fisheries and national marine conservation. The sustainability status of several Chilean fisheries (e.g., hake and kingklip) is assessed along the ecological, technological and human (economic, social, institutional, and ethical) dimensions using Rapfish, a multidisciplinary rapid appraisal technique. We compare both large- and small-scale Chilean fisheries within two political regimes: dictatorship (1973-1990) and democracy (1990-2012). The results suggest that fisheries sustainability and marine conservation can rely heavily on institutional factors, and can lead to counter-intuitive results. This comparative analysis highlights the imperative of multidisciplinary approaches to capture the nuanced interactions of ecological and human dimensions for the design of effective fisheries sustainability and marine conservation policies.

C19.8  16:45  Extinction risk of sharks and rays and the global conservation planning challenge . Dulvy, NK *, IUCN Shark SG / Simon Fraser University; Simpfendorfer, CA IUCN Shark SG / James Cook University;

Abstract: We know now the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List Status of more than 1041 sharks, rays and chimaeras. More than 181 species are threatened and few have effective conservation or fisheries management measures in place. Those taxonomic families with the greatest proportion of threatened species, such as sawfishes, are a clear priority. Opportunity also drives priority. Both manta rays were recently CITES-listed, due to the rapid emergence of a globalized trade in their gill rakers, but what about their close relatives the devil rays? The International Union for the Conservation of Nature is revising its approach to species conservation planning. We illustrate the challenges of species conservation planning in the ocean through two case studies: sawfishes and manta and devil rays. Our early findings suggest a fundamentally different approach to marine conservation planning and funding is needed. Both groups of iconic fishes face the same challenges: they are globally distributed, there is only fragmentary knowledge of local status and threats, and the available conservation capacity is thin and unresourced. Much conservation funding focuses on local on-the-ground solutions, and hence can only be won by ignoring the bigger strategic picture. We suggest a two-tiered approach, scaling from global to local and building conservation capacity along the way.

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