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C17
Effective conservation planning (to include EBM and MPAs, cumulative impacts)

Room: Lomond Auditorium     2014-08-18; 08:30 - 10:30

NB: Unless specified otherwise, presentations are 15 minutes in length, and speed presentations are 5 mins in length.

Chair(s)/Moderator(s): Devillers, Rodolphe

C17.1  08:30  Operating MPAs as a business – a case study of the Namena Marine Reserve, Fiji. Diamond, J *, Coral Reef Alliance; Vasques, J Coral Reef Alliance;

Abstract: Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are historically implemented as conservation and fishery management tools. However, mounting evidence and experience suggests that MPAs are good businesses - profiting communities beyond fisheries (Sala et al, 2013). Therefore, MPAs need to be managed not only as conservation tools but also as businesses. In Fiji, the Coral Reef Alliance has been working with the Kubulau community to implement this type of system in the Namena Marine Reserve. Thinking of MPAs as a business has provided a management framework for the Reserve that includes conservation and financial targets and accommodates on-the-ground management of the MPA through a sustainable financing mechanism. This framework also includes a resource and user fee management plan and projections for growth in tourism and income. In Fiji, this system has proven applicable to the local community, where real-world considerations have helped to shape the model. Key lessons learned include the importance of: cooperative enforcement and management with stakeholders, community benefit-sharing, and a transparent-agreed upon budget. A low-tech approach to business principles has helped the Reserve become a model for MPAs around Fiji and worldwide; and provides an ideal case study to test applicability elsewhere.

C17.2  08:45  Integrating monetary and non-monetary approaches for incorporating the value of marine cultural ecosystem services into decisions. Kenter, Jasper *, Social-ecological systems group, Scottish Association for Marine Science;

Abstract: Marine ecosystems deliver substantial cultural benefits, but there has been limited development of methods that assess the value of marine cultural ecosystem services (ES) and consider trade-offs between cultural and other ES. We present 3 case studies from the UK National Ecosystem Assessment phase 2 to demonstrate innovative methodologies that integrate economic, deliberative, interpretive and psychometric tools. The 1st assessed the value of 151 potential UK MPAs. 13 habitat types were considered for spiritual, engagement, transformative, place identity, social bonding and therapeutic benefits using transport cost, contingent valuation, wellbeing surveys and storytelling methods. The 2nd integrated monetary valuation with systems modeling and participatory GIS to consider ES that could be delivered by coastal realignment in Central Scotland. The 3rd considered trade-offs between inshore fisheries, conservation and a broad range of social priorities using visioning, multi-criteria analysis and participatory budgeting in Hastings (SE England). All studies emphasized group deliberation and social learning. The research demonstrates how cultural and communal values and notions of fairness and responsibility can be integrated into environmental valuation and decision-making. An integrated approach makes it possible to not only answer ‘how much’ questions, but also the ‘why’, ‘where’, ‘how’ and ‘to whom’ of values of marine ES, and deal with the often complex and subtle nature of cultural ES.

C17.3  09:00  A spatial analysis of changes in recreational fishing pressure on the central coast of California subsequent to MPA implementation. Ivens-Duran, M *, California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo; Schaffner, A California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo; Wendt, DE California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo;

Abstract: Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are implemented to simultaneously promote conservation and rebuild exploited fisheries. While multiple studies demonstrate that MPAs can benefit overharvested stocks within reserve boundaries and on reserve edges, few have assessed how MPA placement leads to spatial changes in harvesting effort by the fishing community. Some studies suggest that fishing effort will intensify at MPA edges as fishers target spillover from the protected region. However, few datasets include sufficient pre-implementation data to quantify how MPAs alter the spatial distribution of fishing effort. This analysis utilizes recreational fisheries data collected by scientific observers aboard Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels operating out of Port San Luis and Morro Bay, California, USA between 2003 and 2013. These vessels target nearshore fish species, primarily rockfish (Sebastes spp.). We assess shifts in the spatial distribution of fishing effort over an 11-year period that includes 4 years of baseline data and 7 years of data subsequent to implementation of the California MPA network in the Central Coast region. We use R and ArcGIS to visually depict fine-scale annual fishing pressure, calculate total regional effort, identify changing hot spots of fishing activity, and assess trends in catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE). In particular, we examine changes in effort intensity and CPUE near MPA edges in order to make recommendations for ongoing adaptive management.

C17.4  09:15  Adaptively managing marine protected areas for resilience through collaborative learning and research partnerships. O\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'Leary, JK *, Stanford University, Hopkins Marine Station; Tuda, A Kenya Wildlife Service; Brumbaugh, D Center for Biodiversity and Conservation, AMNH;

Abstract: Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an important marine management tool for conserving ecosystems and ecosystem benefits. However, globally, many MPAs are not managed using science-driven approaches, and can be at risk due to local and global threats. By addressing local threats, managers can make ecosystems more resilient to global threats such as climate change. To promote managers ability to recognize and address threats, we developed a pilot program in adaptive management for Kenyan national marine protected areas. Adaptive resource management is an iterative decision making approach where management strategies are continually reviewed and adjusted in response to the best available information. At program inception, we found little management understanding of MPA status or progress toward ecological or social goals. This limited knowledge inhibiting staff ability to determine appropriate management actions. We discuss steps taken to engage MPA staff in adaptive management including establishment of measurable objectives, developing a data collection and evaluation system, and the use of decision-making support tools. We show how the approach transformed thinking at numerous operational levels within an agency – from stakeholders and entry-level MPA staff to the national agency executive committee. Finally, we demonstrate how the stakeholder-manager-researcher partnership resulted in new and creative pathways toward sustainability, including better ongoing planning to achieve both ecological and socio-economic goals.

C17.5  09:30  Behavioral and ethnographic approaches to fishing effort in small-scale fisheries in Indonesia: aiding marine policy design and conservation. Victoria Ramenzoni *, The University of Georgia, NOAA;

Abstract: Fishery research is useful in guiding conservation efforts and implementing quota restrictions. Despite new approaches that account for environmental uncertainty and variability (Ecosystem Based Fishery Models, Adaptive Management, and Socio-Ecological Systems), marine conservation and policy making often do not successfully incorporate the human dimensions of resource use in small-scale fisheries. In this article, I study decisions about fishing effort of a small tuna fishery in Ende, Flores, Eastern Indonesia through anthropological, behavioral and ecological methods. Relying on a socio-ecological and household based approach, I use multilevel models, multivariate statistics and regression techniques to analyze longitudinal measurements of fishing effort in relation to the moon cycle (n: 2661). Results indicate that patterns of behavior allocation are changing due to climate change and that new fishing profiles are emerging. Conclusions emphasize the utility of behavioral and ethnographic studies at the household level to design harvesting policies in small scale fisheries.

C17.6  09:45  Sustainable marine decision-making through plan-led management in English Seas. Burgess, SN *, Marine Management Organisation;

Abstract: Policy decisions driving management require a robust understanding of where, when & how industries, such as fishing, function in relation to the distribution of resources, to deliver both blue growth & sustainable environmental management. The ecosystem approach (encompassing conservation & development concerns) provides an effective framework for achieving adaptive sustainable development. Effective marine planning, & hence use of seascape, is essential. Although there are numerous studies associated with marine planning, few have considered challenges associated with co-location & cumulative effects combined with projections of how conservation & markets will evolve through time. Co-location of marine activities has broad & varied socio-economic impacts on society. These socio-economic impacts need to be considered when making co-location decisions due to the impact on industry viability, & marine environmental status. Critical to achieving implementation of policy is a need to consider potential cumulative effects arising from maritime activities. Cumulative effects assessment can be defined as evaluating effects from multiple pressures and/or activities, including evaluation of events separated in time and/or in space. This paper will discuss how England has addressed the multi-faceted challenges of ensuring economic, environmental and social sustainability whilst developing marine spatial plan led management of one of the busiest marine areas in Europe.

C17.7  10:00  Traditional ecological knowledge and conservation of endangered marine species: case study of Hippocampus ingens “pacific seahorse” in Peru. . Quiñe, Marina *, Laboratoire d'Excellence "CORAIL", USR 3278 CNRS EPHE UPVD, Centre de Recherche Insulaire et Observatoire de l'Environnement (CRIOBE), CBETM - Université de Perpignan, 66860 Perpignan Cedex, France;

Abstract: To implement and carry out a conservation program of endangered marine species demand among other things, the collect of a lot of information about the target specie. When the distribution area is large and the economic means limited, Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) represent an extremely useful tool. The first assessment of Hippocampus ingens in Peru took place in the Northern shore off Peru, between 3º 30’ and 6º 30’ LS. Six fieldworks were made and 15 fishermen communities were visited. A total of 88 people (mainly fishermen) were interviewed. Information related to distribution, size, reproductive biology, species association, extraction, commercialization and population shift was collected. Then crossed with that obtained through ecological assessment in parallel Fishermen TEK allowed principally: (1) Identify key points of extraction and marketing, allowing the design of commercial circuit. (2) To show the accuracy of the information related to the spatial distribution and size of specimens in these areas. (3) To determine modes of extraction as well as the highest impact on the populations of H. ingens: bycatch (4) To know about shift situation in time of H. ingens and some other species associated with it, also traded. Throughout the three years that this assessment lasted, TEK of fishermen, constituted an invaluable tool in the development of the field study and the way to establish links with fishermen, facilitating the process of sensitization pro-conservation.

C17.8  10:15  Baselines and comparisons of coral reef fish assemblages in the central Red Sea. Kattan, A *, Red Sea Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST); Berumen, ML Red Sea Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST);

Abstract: In order to properly assess human impacts, as well as to appropriate restoration goals, baselines of pristine conditions on untouched coral reefs are required. In Saudi Arabian waters of the central Red Sea, widespread and heavy fishing pressure has been ongoing for decades. To evaluate this influence, we surveyed the assemblage of offshore reef fishes in both this region as well as those of remote and largely unfished southern Sudan. At comparable latitudes, of similar oceanographic influences, and hosting the same array of species, the offshore reefs of southern Sudan provided an ideal location for comparison. We found that top predators (sharks, jacks, large groupers and snappers) dominated the fish assemblages in southern Sudan, resulting in an inverted (top-heavy) biomass pyramid. In contrast, the Red Sea reefs of central Saudi Arabia exhibited the typical bottom-heavy pyramid. These results are remarkably similar to those previously reported in the remote and uninhabited Northwest Hawaiian Islands, northern Line Islands, and other remote Pacific islands. The findings of this study suggest that heavy fishing pressure has significantly altered the fish community structure of Saudi Arabian Red Sea reefs. The results point towards the urgent need for enhanced regulation of fishing practices in Saudi Arabia.



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