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C14
Effective conservation planning (to include EBM and MPAs, cumulative impacts)

Room: Lomond Auditorium     2014-08-18; 11:00 - 13:00

NB: Unless specified otherwise, presentations are 15 minutes in length, and speed presentations are 5 mins in length.

Chair(s)/Moderator(s): Kininmonth, Stuart

C14.1  11:00  Data gaps and scientific needs on biological and biophysical impacts to offshore sand shoals from dredging and renewable energy projects. Culbertson, JB *, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior; Michel, J Research Planning, Inc.; Bejarano, AC Research Planning, Inc.; Peterson, CH University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Voss, C University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill;

Abstract: The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) is charged with environmentally responsible management of U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) resources (oil and gas, marine minerals, renewable energy). BOEM manages multiple uses of offshore sand shoals including dredging for sand and siting renewable energy structures. With the increasing demand for these resources, BOEM is facing complex issues, such as resource allocation, cumulative impacts, fisheries conflicts, protection of archaeological sites and oil and gas infrastructure, and essential fish habitat issues, among others. It is critical that BOEM uses the best available science in their environmental review and consultations with other Federal agencies for proposed leases. BOEM has undertaken several studies to identify data gaps and to examine how to address these gaps, particularly with respect to essential fish habitat. In 2013, a BOEM-funded study identified specific knowledge gaps that may exist and recommended new studies to address the major gaps, for both potential impacts and the efficacy of mitigation measures from use of shoals. This report led to further BOEM funded work with the goal of examining the use of the shoals by various fishes and the recovery rate of species that utilize the shoal (benthic invertebrates and fishes). Better understanding of the ecosystem services of these geologic features will lead to improved management strategies.

C14.2  11:15  A study of the temporal variation in reef fish assemblages in New Caledonia and recommendations for optimal sampling of marine protected areas. Powell, A *, French Institute for the Exploitation of the Sea (IFREMER); Pelletier, D French Institute for the Exploitation of the Sea (IFREMER); Mallet, D French Institute for the Exploitation of the Sea (IFREMER) ; Roman, W French Institute for the Exploitation of the Sea (IFREMER) ;

Abstract: New Caledonia has the second longest barrier reef in the world, high levels of marine biodiversity (>2328 species of fish, 5000 species of crustacean and 350 species of coral) and is also an important reproduction area for humpback whales, dugongs and seabirds. A network of marine protected areas including areas listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites have been created to conserve this unique environment. Since 2007, the IFREMER marine protected areas unit have been developing video methods to increase capacity to effectively monitor the MPAs in the lagoon. Fish assemblages are dynamic and changes in activity patterns and assemblage composition throughout the day can influence the results of surveys. We analysed fish count data from > 800 video drops from 2008-2010 and examined temporal variations in the metrics (eg diversity indices, total abundance, abundance of fished/non-fished species, density ratio per trophic group) that are most commonly used to monitor marine reserves. In addition to describing short-term temporal patterns related to time of day, tidal state and weather we also identified the optimum times to sample different metrics in order to detect effects related to protection status. This has implications for developing optimal monitoring programmes and also highlights how survey results may vary due to the timing of sampling.

C14.3  11:30  Foraging seabirds inform marine spatial planning in the Gulf of Mexico. Poli, C *, School of Agricultural Forest and Environmental Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 USA; Jodice, PGR U.S. Geological Survey, South Carolina Cooperative Fish & Wildlife Research Unit, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 USA;

Abstract: In the Gulf of Mexico, interest in protecting marine areas of potential biological importance is growing but little ecological information on which to inform such planning is available. At-sea habitat use of seabirds could inform planning because foraging locations of marine predators often correlate with ecologically significant habitat, and because prey and other predators may benefit from protection provided to mobile species. We assessed the spatial overlap between the marine area protected by Arrecife Alacranes National Park (AANP), Mexico, and foraging locations of an abundant seabird species that breeds there, the Masked Booby (Sula dactylatra). In 2013 GPS units were deployed on adults breeding in AANP during two seasons. Up to 4 successive foraging trips were recorded over 1-3 days from each of 78 individuals. Birds selected coastal habitat characterized by high chlorophyll-a and warm sea surface temperatures, and tended to forage outside of AANP. Our results suggest that critical habitat for this seabird may not be protected to the extent intended during configuration of AANP. Furthermore, the extent to which foraging habitat of Masked Boobies within and outside of AANP may be influenced by climate change, fisheries interactions, or energy development remains unclear.

C14.4  11:45  Living Museums in the Sea: a globally valid model for protection of biological and cultural resources through sustainable tourism. Beeker, Charles *, Indiana University; Johnson, Claudia Indiana University; Maus, Mathew Indiana University; Budziak, Ania Project AWARE;

Abstract: Protection of integrated cultural, historical, and biological resources in marine environments involves strategic action from political, scientific, and community-based stakeholders. Shipwrecks and their associated ecosystems present compelling opportunities for such strategic action initiatives to develop into a globally valid and unique model for marine environmental protection. Shipwrecks create artificial habitat for marine life by providing hard substrate and rugosity. In turn, marine organisms encase, protect, and preserve cultural resources, and thereby attract tourists. Indiana University developed a unique conservation strategy that allows for establishment of significant historic shipwrecks as Living Museums in the Sea. As underwater parks, LMS associate local economic incentive with the holistic protection of the marine environment. Working with governments, NGOs, and local stakeholders, Indiana University assisted with the establishment of the Historic Shipwreck Trail in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, and lead the development of the National System of Living Museums in the Sea in the Dominican Republic, which includes the 1699 Quedagh Merchant, last shipwreck of Captain Kidd. The Living Museums of the Sea model recognizes the value of shipwrecks as significant submerged cultural resources of importance to tourism while protecting their archaeological and biological integrity, and cultural heritage.

C14.5  12:00  All hands on deck: Building science capacity and political will through MPA monitoring and evaluation. Whiteman, EA *, California Ocean Science Trust; McAfee, S California Ocean Science Trust;

Abstract: Innovation in MPA monitoring is not an oxymoron. But, in practice, overcoming the classic perception of monitoring as scientifically mundane and a financial burden is challenging. How can research be responsive to management when funding and academic advancement don’t encourage it? How can managers make use of academic science when research programs don’t align with management triggers? In California, an unprecedented state commitment to ocean conservation has led to a statewide network of 124 MPAs with lofty ecosystem protection goals. Rebranding MPA monitoring is a directive and an opportunity to innovate. We will share the institutional arrangements, tools and processes that are integrating science into adaptive MPA management. An independent ‘boundary organization’ has developed MPA monitoring programs that incorporate cutting edge science, reflect management priorities and provide credible opportunities for citizen, local and indigenous participation. Data is being collected by tens of programs, thousands of volunteers and many research labs adding up to the most detailed pictured yet created of near-shore ocean conditions. By explicitly recognizing the political and social pathways by which science can inform decisions, we are placing monitoring at the foundation of continuing investments in ocean conservation. Building this foundation is not only pertinent to California but also can provide a blueprint for a sustained monitoring program that can be applied elsewhere.

C14.6  12:15  MaPP: a co-led provincial and First Nations' government marine planning process for ecosystem-based management in the North Pacific Coast of Canada . Diggon, S. , Coastal First Nations - Great Bear Rainforest; Short, C. *Ministry of Forests, Lands, and Natural Resource Operations; Bones, J. JG Bones Consulting; Justice, M. Ministry of Forests, Lands, and Natural Resource Operations; Smith, J. Birdsmith Ecological Research;

Abstract: The Marine Planning Partnership for the North Pacific Coast (MaPP) is a co-led partnership between the Province of British Columbia and 18 member First Nations. MaPP is planning for marine uses and the long-term ocean health on B.C.’s North Pacific Coast. The plan area includes four sub-regions: Haida Gwaii, North Coast, Central Coast and North Vancouver Island. The initiative is using the best available science and local and traditional knowledge to develop comprehensive marine plans and a regional priority plan. A diversity of marine stakeholders provides input and advice to this multi-objective planning process via advisory committees. A Science Advisory Committee provides expert advice and assists MaPP initiative with meeting its objectives. Once completed, the MaPP plans will provide recommendations for marine management, including protection, marine protected area network, uses and activities, and climate change adaptation. The plans will inform decisions regarding the sustainable economic development and stewardship of British Columbia’s coastal marine environment. The marine plans will be accompanied by implementation agreements and specific guidance for day-to-day operations and marine use decisions in the plan area. This talk will describe the MaPP planning process, outcomes, challenges and lessons learned to date.

C14.7  12:30  What cultural ecosystem services are provided by the sea? Hall, Clare *, SRUC; Fletcher, Ruth UNEP-WCMC; Lewis, Amy Wild Economics; Sower, Christopher Unaffiliated; von Almen, Amanda Lord Green Real Estate Strategies; Baulcomb, Corinne SRUC; Hussain, Salman UNEP;

Abstract: It is recognised under the ecosystem services concept that humans benefit in a range of ways from the environment around them, including through the provision of cultural ecosystem services. However, the concept remains one that is difficult to define, measure and thus incorporate into environmental planning decisions. Such challenges apply to both terrestrial and marine environments. The work reported here has attempted to address this challenge through empirical research with residents in Romania and Poland. The participants were asked to freely express what the sea means to them. The emerging discourse was analysed using NVivo 10 software to define key themes and evaluate their importance and interconnectedness. Results reveal that the pre-defined UK NEA ecosystem services model is inadequate for capturing the entirety of the cultural values that people attach to the marine environment. Thus while themes such as recreation, aesthetics and spiritual inspiration are important in providing cultural meaning to individuals, other emergent themes were prominent. These themes included the importance of the seasons, sense of place and sense of space, associations with family and memories, and sensory experiences. This articulation of meaning is important to ongoing debates about how best to manage, protect, conserve and enhance marine environments so as to maximise the range of benefits they provide

C14.8  12:45  Using a Coral Reef Mitigation Bank and Innovative Coral Nursery for Off-Site Impacts to Restore Marine Managed Areas. Gulko, DA *, Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources; Cullison, K Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources; Cavazos, MV Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources; Forsman, Z Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources; Koltan-Zajackowski, K Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources;

Abstract: Mitigation Banks have been used successfully for terrestrial restoration in the USA for years. The concept involves sale of “credits” from a pre-approved “bank” regarding restoration activities conducted within a designated area. These credits can be sold to Responsible Parties (RP) to offset impacts caused by their development or impact activities. A key requirement for a bank is that the property involved be preserved in its restored state over time, a bar difficult to achieve for many places, but not for Marine Managed Areas (MMAs). The State of Hawai‘i has developed the first Mitigation Bank specifically for Aquatic Resources, focused on restoring coral reefs. Key to this design is three critical and innovative components: - A Hawai‘i Coral Ecological Services Tool designed to value impacted and restored coral colonies based on size, form, rarity, and endemism; - A groundbreaking Hawai‘i Coral Nursery designed to use fragmentation and supplemented microgrowth followed by recombination to fast-start large colonies from corals originally from impacted areas, outplanted to MMAs. - A pre-approved Hawaii Aquatic Mitigation Bank that can sell credits to RPs for both planned (coastal and marine development) and unplanned (vessel groundings and spills) impact events. The result is a program that maximizes restoration of impacted and degraded MMAs while optimizing the need for mitigating damage caused by planned and unplanned impact events outside the MMAs.



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